U.S. Supreme Court’s 2015-2016 Term Has an Early Arbitration Focus
By Russ Bleemer
The U.S. Supreme Court began its new term with an early arbitration argument—the fourth case argued on the term’s second day, Oct. 6.
The argument followed a week after the nation’s top court agreed to hear a second arbitration case sometime this term.
Both of the cases involve California arbitration practice. The new case on the docket–which started out focused on unconscionability but will be argued on whether a problematic arbitration clause is salvageable–is a federal case appeal from the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, which covers the state.
The state-court matter that was the subject of the early-term argument, DirecTV Inc. v. Imburgia, No. 14-462, returned to an issue that already had been covered and decided by the Court: federal preemption of conflicting state law that affected arbitrability.
Or so it seemed.
The official issue in the case was “[w]hether the California Court of Appeal erred by holding, in direct conflict with the Ninth Circuit, that a reference to state law in an arbitration agreement governed by the Federal Arbitration Act requires the application of state law preempted by the Federal Arbitration Act.”
The parties—a satellite television provider and an individual subscriber who filed a class action suit over early cancellation fees—had an agreement that provided for individual arbitrations. The form contract waived class arbitration, and was part of a purchase agreement before another California-derived case, AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion, 131 S. Ct. 1740 (2011), backed class waivers.
In AT&T Mobility, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a rule from a California Supreme Court case, Discover Bank v. Superior Court, 113 P.3d 1100 (2005), which forbid class processes. The split AT&T Mobility Supreme Court overturned California’s Discover Bank rule because it interfered with the Federal Arbitration Act.
The DirecTV customer agreement the Court reviewed had hedged its terms about class waivers and arbitration in the wake of the then-pending litigation. Under the purchase agreement, the parties were bound by the FAA.
But the contract stated that if “the law of your state would find this agreement to dispense with class arbitration procedures unenforceable,” then the entire arbitration provision would be stricken from the purchase agreement.
Seemingly flying in the face of the since-decided AT&T Mobility, the California state Court of Appeal in DirecTV had concluded that the contract provision on “the law of your state,” in the words of the DirecTV petition to the Supreme Court, was a non-severable clause that “nullif[ied] the parties’ arbitration provision, even though [the Discover Bank] rule is concededly inconsistent with, and thus preempted by, the FAA under [AT&T Mobility], and even though the arbitration agreement here is concededly governed by the FAA.”
The petition said that the state appellate court had meant the phrase “the law of your state” to mean “state law immune from the preemptive force of federal law.”
It appeared that the U.S. Supreme Court took the case to reverse it and put it in line with its AT&T Mobility precedent.
At the argument, both conservative and liberal justices found the state appeals court’s reading of the contract, in refusing to enforce arbitration, puzzling. Associate Justice Antonin Scalia said the state appeals court holding “flouts well-accepted universal contract-law principles.” Associate Justice Elena Kagan lamented “the extent you can find reasoning in this opinion—which you have to search to find.” The opinion under review is Imburgia v. DirecTV Inc., No. B239361 (Cal. 2nd App. Dist. April 7, 2014)(available at http://ow.ly/Tg4Mi).
The defense of the California state court opinion was that it must be maintained to prevent federal law from usurping state courts’ ability to interpret contract terms.
But the satellite television provider’s slam-dunk argument ran aground when the Court insisted DirecTV’s lawyer set a standard as to how the Court should evaluate state court contract interpretations.
Still, that argument was far simpler than the plaintiff’s argument, which faced a Court mostly unsympathetic to collective actions and which was looking at odd reasoning in the California appellate opinion.
The argument transcript is available at http://ow.ly/TfFui; the November Alternatives, available here on or before Nov. 9, has a full analysis.
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The November Alternatives also will discuss the case that the Court accepted on Oct. 1, MHN Government Servs. Inc. v. Zaborowski, 14-1458, another matter with allegations of California hostility to arbitration.
The case focused originally on unconscionability. MHN, a San Rafael, Calif., military contractor that provides life consulting services to military members and their families, sought to compel arbitration against the respondents, who were consultants in MHN’s network.
MHN’s motion to compel arbitration lost in both a California federal district court and in the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.
The Ninth Circuit, in an unpublished opinion, agreed with the lower court that MHN’s consulting contract was both procedurally and substantively unconscionable.
MHN avoided the unconscionability arguments in its successful U.S. Supreme Court cert petition, and instead counters with a focus on severability. It tells the nation’s top Court that California has a rule on severability for contracts that operates differently when the contract is for arbitration, and the state is biased against arbitration.
The original plaintiffs counter that the federal court opinions exercised appropriate discretion in declining to sever clauses in an arbitration agreement that has been refused to be enforced “by over a dozen judges,” including in a 9-0 Washington state Supreme Court opinion that similarly refused to sever.
Full details, cites, links and analysis will be available in the November Alternatives at the link above.
Russ Bleemer is a CPR Consultant and the Editor of CPR’s award-winning publication, Alternatives