Henry Schein Redux – The Appeals Court Decides “The Placement of the Carve-Out is Dispositive”

By Mark Kantor

Kantor Photo (8-2012)You may recall that the US Supreme Court last term in Henry Schein, Inc. v. Archer and White Sales, Inc. rejected a “wholly groundless” exception to its general principles allocating arbitrability issues between court and arbitrator (the First Options rule that “Unless the parties clearly and unmistakably provide otherwise, the question of whether the parties agreed to arbitrate is to be decided by the court, not the arbitrator.”).  The Supreme Court then sent the case back to the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit for reconsideration in light of the Supreme Court’s ruling.

Yesterday, the Fifth Circuit issued its new opinion in that case (Archer and White Sales, Inc. v. Henry Schein, Inc., No. 16-41674, Aug. 14, 2019, available on TDM at https://www.transnational-dispute-management.com/legal-and-regulatory-detail.asp?key=22906, subscription required).  In that opinion, the Appeals Court concluded that the arbitration clause in question did not clearly and unmistakably allocate the relevant question to the arbitrators.  The Court then held that, based on the exclusion for “actions seeking injunctive relief” from arbitration under the relevant clause, the dispute in question was not arbitrable.  As explained more fully below, the appeals court relied on contract interpretation principles to reach this result.  The court thereby emphasized the importance of precise drafting of the arbitration clause and any exceptions – “the placement of the carve-out here is dispositive.”

The underlying court proceeding brought by Archer and White Sales, Inc. is an antitrust complaint against Henry Schein, Inc. and others relating to alleged anticompetitive agreements entered into among the defendants with respect to sales of dental equipment.  Complainant Archer and White Sales “alleges violations of federal and Texas antitrust law and seeks money damages and injunctive relief.”  The defendants argued that an exclusion in the relevant arbitration clause of “actions seeking injunctive relief” operated to prevent arbitrability of the dispute.

The arbitration clause in the underlying contract reads as follows (emphasis added):

Disputes. This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of North Carolina.  Any dispute arising under or related to this Agreement (except for actions seeking injunctive relief and disputes related to trademarks, trade secrets, or other intellectual property of Pelton & Crane), shall be resolved by binding arbitration in accordance with the arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association [(AAA)].  The place of arbitration shall be in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Under AAA Commercial Arbitration  Rule 7(a), “[t]he arbitrator shall have the power to rule on his or her own jurisdiction, including any objections with respect to the existence, scope, or validity of the arbitration agreement or to the arbitrability of any claim or counterclaim.”  However, the Fifth Circuit interpreted this arbitration clause in the agreement to exclude actions seeking injunctive relief from arbitration.  By doing so, the parties, said the appeals court, had placed the relevant dispute entirely outside the AAA arbitration rules.  Thus, Rule 7(a) did not come into play, and the parties had not clearly and unmistakably delegated the issue of arbitrability of an action seeking injunctive relief to the arbitrator.

Finding that the exclusion in the arbitration clause was itself clear, the Court of Appeals itself then determined that the dispute was not arbitrable because the court claims sought injunctive relief in addition to damages.

The decision of the Fifth Circuit avoids reconsidering the issue raised by amicus and discussed by Justice Ginsburg in her separate Supreme Court opinion – do provisions in arbitration rules such AAA Rule 7(a) in fact constitute a clear and unmistakable delegation of arbitrability decisions to the arbitrator.  As the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals noted in footnote 11, “While both parties read the tea leaves in the questions asked by the Justices at oral argument, attempting to shepherd them to support their own positions, the Court declined to decide whether this agreement in fact delegated the arbitrability question.”

In the Fifth Circuit, precedent holds that an arbitration rule such as AAA Rule 7(a) satisfies the First Options test; “As we held in [Petrofac, Inc. v. DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations Co., 687 F.3d 671, 675 (5th Cir. 2012)], an arbitration agreement that incorporates the AAA Rules “presents clear and unmistakable evidence that the parties agreed to arbitrate arbitrability.””  That issue, as to which the ALI Restatement of The U.S. Law of International Commercial and Investor-State Arbitration takes the contrary position, therefore remains the subject of a circuit split among Circuit Courts of Appeals in the US to be resolved in the future by the US Supreme Court.

The manner in which the Fifth Circuit judges reached this conclusion is particularly relevant to patent licensing disputes, where the parties to a patent license agreement or similar IP agreement often provide for arbitration but contractually exclude patent validity, infringement and similar disputes from arbitration.

The Circuit Court of Appeals (Judge Patrick Higginbotham writing for a unanimous court) began its analysis in the customary two-step fashion, asking first if there is any arbitration agreement at all and thereafter considering whether “this claim is covered by the arbitration agreement” (footnotes omitted here and elsewhere).

We review a ruling on a motion to compel arbitration de novo.  Our inquiry proceeds in two steps.  The first is a matter of contract formation—“whether the parties entered into any arbitration agreement at all.”  Next we turn to the question of contract interpretation and ask whether “this claim is covered by the arbitration agreement.”

Judge Higginbotham then restated the well-known First Options “clearly and unmistakably” formulation for allocating the second question between court and arbitrator.

While ordinarily both steps are questions for the court, the parties can enter into an arbitration agreement that delegates to the arbitrator the power to decide whether a particular claim is arbitrable. The Supreme Court has repeatedly made clear that “parties can agree to arbitrate ‘gateway’ questions of ‘arbitrability,’ such as whether the parties have agreed to arbitrate or whether their agreement covers a particular controversy.”

When considering whether there was a valid delegation, “the court’s analysis is limited.” As always, we ask if the parties entered into a valid agreement. If they did, we turn to the delegation clause and ask “whether the purported delegation clause is in fact a delegation clause—that is, if it evinces an intent to have the arbitrator decide whether a given claim must be arbitrated.”  When determining that intent, “[c]ourts should not assume that the parties agreed to arbitrate arbitrability unless there is ‘clear and unmistakable’ evidence that they did so.” If there is a valid delegation, the court must grant the motion to compel.

Here, the disputing parties had agreed that a valid arbitration agreement existed, leaving only the second step for consideration – was the particular claim covered by that agreement.  Archer and White argued that decision was for the courts to make.

Archer asserts that the AAA rules (and resulting delegation) only apply to disputes that fall outside of the arbitration clause’s carve-out for actions seeking injunctive relief. Under their reading, if a case falls within the carve-out, the agreement does not incorporate the AAA rules and the gateway arbitrability question is not delegated to an arbitrator.

Henry Schein argued in response that, by operation of AAA Commercial Arbitration Rule 7(a), the parties had expressly delegated that issue to the arbitrator.

[D]efendants argue that the agreement’s incorporation of the AAA rules ends the inquiry.  They maintain that the carve-out for actions seeking injunctive relief does not trump the parties’ delegation.  Defendants warn that to read the contract as Archer suggests would require the court to make a merits determination about the scope of the carve-out—whether this is indeed an action seeing injunctive relief—to answer the delegation question, precisely the category of inquiries a court is precluded from making in answering the delegation question.

The Fifth Circuit agreed with claimant Archer and White, holding that the “plain language” of the arbitration clause did not incorporate the AAA rules for disputes “under the carve-out”.

that is precisely the point—the placement of the carve-out here is dispositive. We cannot re-write the words of the contract. The most natural reading of the arbitration clause at issue here states that any dispute, except actions seeking injunctive relief, shall be resolved in arbitration in accordance with the AAA rules. The plain language incorporates the AAA rules—and therefore delegates arbitrability—for all disputes except those under the carve-out.  Given that carve-out, we cannot say that the Dealer Agreement evinces a “clear and unmistakable” intent to delegate arbitrability.

The appellate court then considered whether the “backdrop of a strong presumption in favor of arbitration” would result in referring the dispute to arbitration.  But the language of the exclusion in the arbitration clause, said the judges, was clear.  Moreover, the court noted that the clause excluded “actions seeking injunctive relief,” not “actions seeking only injunctive relief.”  The appellate court therefore refused to compel arbitration, even of only the claim for damages.

We note first that the arbitration clause creates a carve-out for “actions seeking injunctive relief.” It does not limit the exclusion to “actions seeking only injunctive relief,” nor “actions for injunction in aid of an arbitrator’s award.” Nor does it limit the carve-out to claims for injunctive relief. Such readings find no footing within the four corners of the contract. Under North Carolina law, “[w]hen the language of a contract is clear and unambiguous, effect must be given to its terms, and the court, under the guise of construction, cannot reject what the parties inserted or insert what the parties elected to omit.” The mere fact that the arbitration clause permits Archer to avoid arbitration by adding a claim for injunctive relief does not change the clause’s plain meaning. “While ambiguities in the language of the agreement should be resolved in favor of arbitration, we do not override the clear intent of the parties, or reach a result inconsistent with the plain text of the contract, simply because the policy favoring arbitration is implicated.” Fundamentally, defendants ask us to rewrite the unambiguous arbitration clause. We cannot.

It is noteworthy that the appeals court did not consider severing Archer and White’s remedial request for injunctive relief from its remedial request for damages, which might have resulted in sending the latter to arbitration but keeping the former in court.

The appellate panel’s decision in Henry Schein is of particular importance to intellectual property practitioners.  It is common in the marketplace for patent licensing and similar agreements to contain arbitration clauses.  However, those clauses often expressly exclude from arbitration a dispute for example, “concerning the validity, scope, infringement and essentiality of a patent or a patent claim.”  Moreover, it is extremely common in all sorts of contracts for an arbitration clause to include as well an express authorization for a disputing party to seek injunctive relief from the courts.

Thus, the Fifth Circuit has previously compelled arbitration of the scope question in another precedent, Crawford Professional Drugs, Inc. v. CVS Caremark Corp., 748 F.3d 249, 256 (5th Cir. 2014), under  an arbitration clause stating inter alia “nothing in the arbitration provision “shall prevent either party from seeking injunctive relief for breach of th[e Agreement.”

In the Ninth Circuit, though, the appeals court there has concluded that the scope of arbitrability was for the arbitrator to decide under an arbitration clause providing that “all” disputes arising out of or relating to the subject license agreement were to be arbitrated, and then containing a carve-out for certain IP and licensing claims.

The Ninth Circuit considered a similar agreement in Oracle Am., Inc. v. Myriad Group A.G.  The arbitration clause adopted arbitration rules delegating arbitrability issues to the arbitrator and contained a carve-out for certain intellectual property and licensing claims.  Because the claims carved-out by that agreement “ar[ose] out of or relat[ed] to” the Source License, and the agreement explicitly provided that any claim arising out of the Source License was subject to arbitration, the Ninth Circuit held that Oracle’s carve-out argument “conflate[ed] the scope of the arbitration clause . . . with the question of who decides arbitrability.30

****

30.  ****  The court noted that the issue with Oracle’s carve-out argument was that the two categories of exempted claims by definition were claims arising out of or relating to the Source License, which were explicitly subject to arbitration. Id. at 1076.  No such circularity exists in the contract at issue here.

Where, though, the meaning of a carve-out clause is ambiguous, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals has previously allocated to the courts the scope question in NASDAQ OMX Grp., Inc. v. UBS Securities, LLC, 770 F.3d 1010 (2d Cir. 2014).

the parties in NASDAQ had not clearly and unmistakably delegated arbitrability “where a broad arbitration clause is subject to a qualifying provision that at least arguably covers the present dispute.”  Because there was ambiguity as to whether the parties intended to have arbitrability questions decided by an arbitrator—because the dispute arguably fell within the carve-out—the court held the arbitrability question was for the court to decide.

These varying precedents emphasize the point made by the Fifth Circuit in Henry Schein that the parties must take care in the drafting of their exclusionary clauses; “But that is precisely the point—the placement of the carve-out here is dispositive.  We cannot re-write the words of the contract.”

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Mark Kantor is a CPR Distinguished Neutral. Until he retired from Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, Mark was a partner in the Corporate and Project Finance Groups of the Firm. He currently serves as an arbitrator and mediator. He teaches as an Adjunct Professor at the Georgetown University Law Center (Recipient, Fahy Award for Outstanding Adjunct Professor). Additionally, Mr. Kantor is Editor-in-Chief of the online journal Transnational Dispute Management.

This material was first published on OGEMID, the Oil Gas Energy Mining Infrastructure and Investment Disputes discussion group sponsored by the on-line journal Transnational Dispute Management (TDM, at https://www.transnational-dispute-management.com/), and is republished with consent.

More Class: Fifth Circuit Sends Arbitrability to the Court, Not the Tribunal

By Hew Zhan Tze

The Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals recently held that class arbitrability is to be determined by the Court instead of the arbitrators in a class arbitration case.  20/20 Comms. Inc. v. Lennox Crawford, No. 18-10260 (5th Cir. July 22, 2019). The case appears to add a level of inquiry in the subject matter that may run counter to a U.S. Supreme Case earlier this year.

Several employees of 20/20 Communications, a marketing firm based in Fort Worth, Texas, filed individual arbitration claims against the employer. The arbitrator commenced a class arbitration despite an arbitration agreement contract clause prohibiting the consolidation of individual claims, “on the theory that the parties’ class arbitration bar is prohibited by federal law.”

Following the views of the Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Eleventh Circuits, the Fifth Circuit held that where class arbitration is an issue, a legal presumption arises that the Court will determine the availability of class arbitration unless the arbitration agreement contained clear and unmistakable language to the contrary.

The Fifth Circuit, in a unanimous opinion written by Circuit Judge James C. Ho, reversed the decisions of two district courts. In one case, the district court held that the arbitration agreement authorized the arbitrator to determine class arbitrability instead of the court. See 20/20 Comms. Inc. v. Randall Blevins, No. 4:16-cv-00810-Y (N.D. Tex.) (Means, J.). In the other case, the district court held that the class arbitration bar was unenforceable under the National Labor Relations Act. See 20/20 Comms. Inc. v. Lennox Crawford, No. 4:17-cv-929-A (N.D. Tex.) (McBryde, J.).

The Fifth Circuit determined that class arbitrability is a gateway issue for the court. It rejected the employee’s arguments that the delegation provisions in the arbitration agreement clearly and unmistakably delegated the determination of class arbitrability to the arbitrator.

The circuit court said class arbitrability falls under the category of a gateway issue which would presumptively be determined by the courts because (i) the increased size and complexity of the dispute, (ii) the due process concerns that are raised and (iii) the privacy and confidentiality of the parties may be compromised.

While these factors point toward class arbitrability being a gateway issue, the appeals court stops short of elaborating on why arbitrators are not well-equipped to handle these concerns. An arbitrator could undertake these considerations and determine not to consolidate the individual claims.

Regardless, it means that the court could be involved despite the parties’ attempt to resolve the dispute via arbitration. Additionally, to the extent the employee can bargain, the individual may not reach an agreement with the employer to use the “clear and unmistakable” language sought by the courts to override the legal presumption that the court is to decide class arbitrability.

Having raised the legal presumption that class arbitrability is to be determined by the court, not the arbitrator, the court’s next task, according to the Fifth Circuit, would be to assess whether the arbitration agreement contained delegation provisions in clear and unmistakable language that would override the legal presumption. The circuits courts are currently split on whether traditional delegation provisions are sufficient to override this legal presumption.

The Arbitration Nation blog points out that in the Second, Tenth and Eleventh Circuits, traditional delegation provisions which submits any dispute to the arbitrator were held to be sufficient to overcome the presumption, citing Wells Fargo Advisors LLC v. Sappington, 884 F. 3d 392 (2nd Cir. 2018) and Spirit Airlines, Inc. v. Maizes, 899 F. 3d 1230 (11th Cir. 2018). See Henry Allen Blair, “The Fifth Circuit Weighs in About Who Decides Class Arbitrability,” Arbitration Nation (July 28) (available at http://bit.ly/2KqcIFu). It is noted that the Tenth Circuit held similarly in Dish Network L.L.C. v. Matthew Ray, 900 F.3d 1240 (10th Cir. 2018).

On the other hand, Blair’s Arbitration Nation post notes that the Third, Fourth, Sixth and Eighth Circuits concluded that notwithstanding traditional delegation provisions or provisions incorporating institutional rules which delegates the decision of class arbitrability to the arbitrator, the decision of class arbitrability still lies with the Court. See Opalinski v. Robert Half Intern Inc., 761 F. 3d 326 (3rd Cir. 2014); Dell Web Communities Inc. v. Carlson, 817 F.3d 867 (4th Cir. 2016); Reed Elsevier Inc. v. Crockett, 734 F. 3d 594 (6th Cir. 2013), and Catamaran Corp. v. Towncrest Pharmacy, 864 F. 3d 966 (8th Cir. 2017), among others.

In the Fifth Circuit Crawford opinion, typical delegation provisions were included in the arbitration provision. Interestingly, after a brief discussion of the delegation provisions at issue, the court stated that it ultimately need not make a conclusion on “[w]hether these provisions, standing alone, clearly and unmistakably empower the arbitrator to decide questions of class arbitrability.” Instead, the Court considered it sufficient to compare the class arbitration bar at issue with the delegation provisions to reach the conclusion that none of the provisions “state with the requisite clear and unmistakable language that arbitrators, rather than courts, shall decide questions of class arbitrability.”

The Fifth Circuit’s conclusion raises an important question: What language used in the arbitration agreement would be clear and unmistakable enough to overcome the legal presumption that it is the courts that will decide class arbitrability instead of the arbitrators when there is a contractual clause barring class arbitration?

“[T]here is tension in this decision,” notes Philip J. Loree Jr., of New York’s Loree & Loree, who closely watches class arbitration cases, “and I think the culprit is the Court’s ruling that the clarity of the class arbitration waiver should be considered as evidence that the parties did not clearly and unmistakably  intend arbitrators to decide arbitrability.”

Loree notes in an email, “Whether or not the class arbitration waiver is clear and unmistakable says nothing about who is supposed to interpret and apply the waiver. This, he notes, gives the impression that the Fifth Circuit is —perhaps unintentionally— making an end around this year’s U.S. Supreme Court rejection of the “wholly groundless” exception to the clear and unmistakable rule set out in Henry Schein, Inc. v. Archer And White Sales, Inc., 139 S.Ct. 524 (2019) (available at http://bit.ly/2YLDkWQ) (see Mark Kantor, “Implications of Henry Schein and New Prime US Supreme Court Decisions,” CPR Speaks (Jan. 22) (available at http://bit.ly/33d5nSo).

Loree notes that where an arbitrator ignores the parties’ clear and unmistakable class arbitration waiver, the award would presumably be vacated under Federal Arbitration Act Section 10(a)(4), following the Supreme Court’s decisions in Stolt-Nielsen S.A v. AnimalFeeds Int’l Corp., 130 S.Ct. 1758 (2010) and Oxford Health Plans LLC v. John Ivan Sutter, 133 S.Ct. 2064 (2013).

“But rather than allow that scenario to play itself out,” he continues, “the Fifth Circuit has effectively conflated the clarity of the contract on the merits issue (class arbitration consent) with the clarity of the contract on the issue of who gets to decide class arbitration consent.”

This, according to Loree, runs counter to the Supreme Court’s Schein decision.

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The author is a CPR Institute summer intern.

 

US Sup Ct: Will the “Next Big Arbitration Issue” Be Whether Provisions of Arbitration Rules Constitute Clear and Unmistakable Evidence That the Disputing Parties Allocated “Who Decides” Authority to the Arbitrators?

By Mark Kantor

Kantor Photo (8-2012)

The U.S. Supreme Court heard oral argument in two arbitration-related cases on Monday, Henry Schein Inc. v. Archer & White Sales Inc. and Lamps Plus Inc. v. Varela.  The issue before the Court in Henry Schein was whether or not there is a “wholly groundless” exception to the general Federal Arbitration Act caselaw rule that, if the parties have “clearly and unmistakably” allocated the “who decides” question to the arbitrators, then issues of jurisdiction/arbitrability are for the arbitrator to decide in the first instance, not the courts.

The facts of the Henry Schein case involved the relatively commonplace occurrence of a commercial arbitration agreement referencing arbitration rules (here, AAA Commercial Arbitration Rule 7(a)) that grant the arbitrators the power to decide their own jurisdiction.  The lower courts in Henry Schein, like many other Federal courts before them, concluded that provision of the Rules constituted “clear and unmistakable evidence” (as called for by the Supreme Court in First Options of Chicago, Inc. v. Kaplan) allocating the “who decides” authority to the arbitrators, and then proceeded to consider whether or not an exception to that allocation exists if the claim of arbitrability is “wholly groundless”.

The 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled below in Henry Schein that such a “wholly groundless” exception does exist.  Further, said the Court of Appeals, that “wholly groundless” exception applied in the dispute such that the Federal courts could refuse to compel arbitration in the circumstances.  The disappointed claimant then sought, and obtained, U.S. Supreme Court review on the question of whether such a “wholly groundless” exception to the “clear and unmistakable evidence” allocation rule exists under Federal arbitration law.

However, Prof. George Bermann of Columbia Law School, known to many of us as inter alia the chief reporter of the ALI’s Restatement of the U.S. Law of International Commercial and Investor-State Arbitration, felt moved to submit an amicus brief in Henry Schein questioning, not the issue expressly before the Court, but instead the underlying principle that incorporation of arbitration rules granting jurisdiction/arbitrability power to the arbitrators satisfies the “clear and unmistakable evidence” test for allocating “who decides” authority to the arbitrators .

Although a majority of courts have found the incorporation of rules containing such a provision to satisfy First Options’ “clear and unmistakable” evidence test, the ALI’s Restatement of the U.S. Law of International Commercial and Investor-State Arbitration has concluded, after extended debate, that these cases were incorrectly decided because incorporation of such rules cannot be regarded as manifesting the “clear and unmistakable” intention that First Options requires.

https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/17/17-1272/65270/20181001112810079_REPRINT%20Amicus-GAB.pdf .

Many of the Supreme Court Justices commented that this issue of “clear and unmistakable evidence … due to incorporation by reference” was not part of the Question Presented on which the Supreme Court granted certiorari in Henry Schein.  Based on those comments, it seems unlikely that the eventual decision of the Court in Henry Schein will resolve the issue posed by Prof. Bermann.  Nevertheless, Justices from across the judicial spectrum commented respectfully regarding Prof. Bermann’s amicus argument.  See comments and questions of Justice Ginsburg, Tr. 7:16-23; Justice Breyer, Tr. 49:15-23; Justice Gorsuch, Tr. 42:13-20; Justice Sotomayor, Tr. 38:4-7; Justice Alito, Tr. 35:7-36:4.

Counsel for the Petitioner did take substantive issue with Prof. Bermann’s argument, in addition to arguing that the issue was not within the Question Presented and thus in any event not before the Court.

What is going on in this case, if you look at the four corners of the delegation -of the arbitration agreement **** is that the arbitration agreement by its terms incorporates the rules of the American Arbitration Association and it does so very clearly. That is a quite common arrangement, particularly in commercial arbitrations like the one at issue here.

Then, if you take a look at the rules of the American Arbitration Association, those rules, and, in particular, Rule 7(a), clearly give the arbitrator the authority to decide arbitrability.  And under this Court’s decision in First Options, the relevant inquiry is whether or not the parties were willing to be bound by the arbitrator’s determination on the issue in question.

And so, with all due respect to Professor Bermann and his amicus brief, the position that he propounds has been rejected by every court of appeals to have considered this issue.  And if the Court has any interest in this issue, I would refer the Court to the very thoughtful opinion of the Tenth Circuit in the Belnap case, which discusses this issue in some detail.

Tr. 8:9-9:13.

The transcript of the oral argument in Henry Schein, available at https://www.supremecourt.gov/oral_arguments/argument_transcripts/2018/17-1272_bqmc.pdf, is very much worth reading in this regard.

The arguably positive comments by some Justices in reaction to Prof. Bermann’s amicus argument create the possibility that opportunistic counsel in other cases will see a signal that raising the principle to the Supreme Court in a future case might be worth the effort.  Consequently, I suggest that the “Next Big Arbitration Issue” to come to the U.S. Supreme Court may be whether or not an arbitration agreement incorporating arbitration rules that include within themselves a provision authorizing the arbitrators to rule on their own competence satisfies the “clear and unmistakable evidence” test in First Options for allocating “who decides” authority to the arbitrators in the first instance.

By the way, reading the tea leaves in the Henry Schein oral argument, at least some observers believe the comments/questions of the Supreme Court Justices indicate that the Court is not inclined to validate a “wholly groundless” exception to the allocation of “who decides” authority to the arbitrators.  See, e.g., http://www.scotusblog.com/2018/10/argument-analysis-justices-signal-opposition-to-vague-exceptions-that-would-limit-enforceability-of-arbitration-agreements/#more-276785.

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Mark Kantor is a CPR Distinguished Neutral. Until he retired from Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, Mark was a partner in the Corporate and Project Finance Groups of the Firm. He currently serves as an arbitrator and mediator. He teaches as an Adjunct Professor at the Georgetown University Law Center (Recipient, Fahy Award for Outstanding Adjunct Professor). Additionally, Mr. Kantor is Editor-in-Chief of the online journal Transnational Dispute Management.

This material was first published on OGEMID, the Oil Gas Energy Mining Infrastructure and Investment Disputes discussion group sponsored by the on-line journal Transnational Dispute Management (TDM, at https://www.transnational-dispute-management.com/), and is republished with consent.

US Sup Ct Grants Cert to Review Whether Courts Can Decline to Enforce Delegation of Arbitrability to Arbitrators When Court Concludes Arbitrability Claim is Wholly Groundless

By Mark Kantor

Kantor Photo (8-2012)

Continuing their now years-long effort to mold the relationship between the courts and arbitrators, the US Supreme Court today granted certiorari in Henry Schein Inc. v. Archer and White Sales Inc., No. 17-1272, to answer the question of “[w]hether the Federal Arbitration Act permits a court to decline to enforce an agreement delegating questions of arbitrability to an arbitrator if the court concludes the claim of arbitrability is “wholly groundless.””  In the lower appellate phase of this dispute, the US Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit had ruled last December that Federal courts did indeed have the authority to do so.

Granting this cert petition will allow the Supreme Court to resolve a “Circuit split” on the issue between the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Federal Circuits, holding on the one hand that Federal courts may decide an arbitrability issue if the claim for arbitrability is “wholly groundless,” and the Tenth and Eleventh Circuits, holding on the other hand that if there is a contractual delegation of arbitrability to the arbitrators then the courts must compel arbitration to resolve the arbitrability issue even if it appears to the court that the claim of arbitrability is entirely groundless.

The dispute will be argued in the October Term of the Court.

The case record for this matter, including the appeals court decision and the filings relating to certiorari, can be found on www.Scotusblog.com at http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/henry-schein-inc-v-archer-and-white-sales-inc/.

 

Mark Kantor is a CPR Distinguished Neutral. Until he retired from Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, Mark was a partner in the Corporate and Project Finance Groups of the Firm. He currently serves as an arbitrator and mediator. He teaches as an Adjunct Professor at the Georgetown University Law Center (Recipient, Fahy Award for Outstanding Adjunct Professor). Additionally, Mr. Kantor is Editor-in-Chief of the online journal Transnational Dispute Management.

This material was first published on OGEMID, the Oil Gas Energy Mining Infrastructure and Investment Disputes discussion group sponsored by the on-line journal Transnational Dispute Management (TDM, at https://www.transnational-dispute-management.com/), and is republished with consent.

Delaware Chancery Defines ‘Quick’ Court Inquiry Before Referral to Arbitration

By Kelly Zhang

An action for a preliminary injunction to enjoin arbitration proceedings by officers of a Delaware limited liability company has been denied by the Delaware Court of Chancery.

The decision supports the vitality of a limited liability company’s use of arbitration in its operating agreement. But as it develops the Delaware business court’s view of cases to be sent for arbitration, the case arguably increases the chancery court’s gatekeeping function. Angus v. Ajio LLC, Civil Action No. 11895-VCG (May 13, 2016)(available for download at http://bit.ly/1sXAChn).

The matter concerned whether a dispute was arbitrable, and the question was whether the dispute should go to an arbitrator, or be decided by a court. The underlying suit included allegations of a breach of fiduciary duties and fraud brought by some members the company, MoGo Sport LLC, against MoGo’s officers, for entering into a transaction that ultimately sold the company.

Traditionally, questions of arbitrability have been left to the arbitrators, once a court has found that parties had agreed to submit their disputes to arbitration. The landmark case of Moses H. Cone Memorial Hosp. v. Mercury Construction Corp., 460 U.S. 1, 24 (1983) confirmed that the Federal Arbitration Act created a “liberal federal policy favoring arbitration agreements,” and that “any doubts concerning the scope of arbitrable issues should be resolved in favor of arbitration.”

This suggested a first look to the arbitration tribunal, which further U.S. Supreme Court cases developed. But the determination of arbitrability ultimately follows the contract. First Options of Chicago Inc. v. Kaplan, 514 U. S. 938 (1995), enshrined the principle that “courts should not assume that the parties agreed to arbitrate arbitrability unless there is “clea[r] and unmistakabl[e]” evidence that they did so.” (Internal citation omitted.) The First Options inquiry turned upon what parties agreed to; the question was settled by the court once it was shown that parties had not agreed to arbitrate.

Subsequent cases like Howsam v. Dean Witter Reynolds Inc., 537 U.S. 79 (2002), and Green Tree Financial Corp. v. Bazzle, 539 U.S. 444 (2003), further narrowed courts’ ability to decide on arbitrability.

Howsam focused on time bars on arbitration, which the Supreme Court ruled was to be determined by arbitrators. Green Tree Financial further held that an ambiguity in the arbitration provision was to be resolved by an arbitration tribunal.

But the May Angus opinion in Delaware’s Chancery Court doesn’t follow the general deference toward arbitration. It shows the Delaware business court examining the frivolity of claims.

In his 12-page opinion, Vice Chancellor Sam Glasscock III affirmed a two-pronged test to show a “clear and unmistakable” intent to arbitrate issues of arbitrability in James & Jackson LLC v. Willie Gary LLC, 906 A.2d 76 (Del. 2006)(available at http://bit.ly/1NZBonr).

The test, Glasscock wrote, requires a “’clear and unmistakable evidence’ of intent to arbitrate arbitrability . . . where there is:

‘1) an arbitration clause that generally provides for arbitration of all disputes; and
2) a reference to a set of arbitration rules that empower arbitrators to decide arbitrability, such as the American Arbitration Association . . . Rules.’”

Glasscock then expanded the test by citing McLaughlin v. McCann, 942 A.2d 616 (Del. Ch. 2008)(available at http://bit.ly/1RGfmke), noting that

only where “a non-frivolous argument in favor of substantive arbitrability exists and the first two prongs of Willie Gary are satisfied, [should] the Court . . . defer to the arbitrator.” [Emphasis added; citation omitted.]

The Angus opinion notes that the additional requirement serves the interests of justice by preventing wasted resources from the adjudication or arbitration of frivolous claims, allowing the court to strike the frivolous claims. But the court’s examination is limited; cases where “more than a quick, facial review of claims would be required” would proceed to arbitration.

Out of the four officers against whom the arbitration demand was brought, only Bruce Angus was a party to the MoGo operating agreement. Consistent with the contractual approach, the motion to halt the arbitration preliminarily against the remaining three officers was granted, as it was held that they would more likely would not be bound to arbitrate because of the lack of contractual obligations under the LLC operating agreement.

On the other hand, the court found at least one “non-frivolous” claim with regard to the original plaintiffs’ standing to force arbitration. As a result, Vice Chancellor Glasscock denied the motion for a preliminary injunction in Angus’s case, and deferred the decision to the arbitrators on the substantive issue of whether the case should be arbitrated.

The court conducted an analysis to determine if there were non-frivolous claims to arrive at the conclusion that the case should be arbitrated.

First, Angus and the other officers who sought to block the arbitration argued that the LLC members who filed for arbitration over the company’s sale lacked standing to enforce arbitration under the operating agreement when they cited a covenant not to compete. The theory was that only MoGo itself could enforce the non-compete provisions, and not the Members.

Glasscock saw these “issues of standing by signatories to a contract to enforce breaches of that contract” as non-frivolous, and that the officers failed to demonstrate that the original plaintiffs’ assertion of standing was frivolous. That finding sent the case to arbitrators for the determination of whether the case arbitrable.

In addition, the defendant officers had said that the arbitration claims against them for a breach of fiduciary duties were outside the scope of the LLC operating agreement because the contract was silent on fiduciary duty.

The court noted that the arbitration provision only covered disputes “among Members or former Member over the provisions of the Operating Agreement.” [Emphasis is the court’s.] It said that whether a breach-of-fiduciary-duties claim would arise from the agreement, and whether the agreement’s silence on the point incorporates default fiduciary duties from state law, was a “nice question” that needed deeper examination.

“This question,” Glasscock wrote, “which warrants more than a cursory inquiry by the Court into the frivolousness of the claim, should be referred to arbitration” under the parties’ agreement.

Angus arguably paves the way for courts to have more say in deciding the arbitrability of disputes despite arbitration provisions. “Litigants’ economy,” the opinion notes, mandates courts to conduct at least the “quick, facial review” of the frivolousness of claims, discussed above, before allowing them to proceed to arbitration. Cases would have to both show a clear intent to arbitrate, as well as present non-frivolous claims, in order to strike a balance between serving the economy and providing parties the benefits of their bargain.

Attorneys from both sides declined to comment.

The case proceeds. An answer and counter-claim was filed by the MoGo LLC members, as they proceed on their fiduciary and fraud claims against the officers not subject to arbitration, on May 27.

The author was a Summer 2016 CPR Institute summer intern and is a third-year LL.B. student from the Singapore Management University.