The CPR European Advisory Board presents: “Meet CPR Distinguished Neutrals Based in Europe: Tsisana Shamlikashvili

Tsisana Shamlikashvili

The CPR European Advisory Board (EAB) continues its series, “Meet CPR’s Distinguished Neutrals in Europe,” and today it presents its second Q&A, with Professor Tsisana Shamlikashvili, centering around the theme of “Mediation in the 21st Century.”

Tsisana is a Moscow based, international expert in ADR.  She focuses on mediation and was responsible for initiating and supporting the institutionalization of mediation in Russia, founding the Center for Mediation and Law in 2005.  Her mediation/neutral practice covers a wide range of cases from complicated cross-border commercial disputes to family conflicts, as well as intellectual property, workplace, financial, personal injury and medical malpractice disputes.  She is currently president of the National Organization of Mediators (NOM), academic chair of the Federal Institute of Mediation, founder of the Scientific and Methodological Center for Mediation and Law, Chair of the Subcommittee on ADR and Mediation in the Russian Association of Lawyers, founder, publisher and editor-in-chief of the magazine “Mediation and Law”, and head of the Mediation Master’s Program at MSUPE. [https://mediacia.com/en/founder/]

By Kathleen Fadden (consultant with AMGEN) and Vanessa Alarcon Duvanel (King & Spalding LLP) 

How did you get your start as a neutral?

It has been a lifelong journey towards mediation which perfectly synthesized my professional background and experience.  Understanding how imperfect traditional ways of addressing conflict are and how much harm we can avoid using mediation as a preventive approach made me start the journey.

Who is your dispute resolution hero/heroine?

I strongly believe that each person who finds enough courage to step into a dialogue with his/her opponent has to be supported and professionals who assist in these complex situations are heroes and heroines too.

What is the one piece of advice that you would want to give to the younger generation looking for a first appointment as neutral?

To be consistent and persistent, to stay humble and maintain curiosity.  Always be ready for the unexpected.  Be surprised about what won’t happen!

Were you ever the first in doing something?

Yes, indeed.  Development of mediation and its institutionalization in Russia was initiated by me, as was ADR implementation generally.

What makes your conflict resolution style unique?

Each mediator is unique and each mediation is unique.  My preference is to facilitate parties in their efforts to resolve the conflict, to find an exit out of dispute which will provide the parties with a mutually acceptable future.  This means possessing the ability to use different models of mediation in each case or even a blend of the models to achieve the best result.  The main thing is to follow the key principles of mediation as a modern tool to address the conflict and to develop conditions so that the parties in the conflict are empowered.

What has been the most difficult challenge you have faced as a neutral?

There are difficulties and dilemmas in almost every case.  Ethical dilemmas are often the most complicated to resolve.  For example, how should a mediator behave when he/she holds information crucial for settlement of the case but one party does not want to share the information with counterparts and does not wish the mediator to do so either or even have any direct discussion about the topic?

What is the most important mistake you see counsel make?

The biggest mistake counsel can make is to fail to give the represented party a real voice, view or opinion at the hearing.

If you could change one thing about commercial arbitration, what would it be?

It would probably be the introduction of a two to three hour compulsory informative session regarding mediation and the requirement to include a mediation clause in most contracts.

Now let’s turn to a specific topic: what is your approach to cybersecurity and data protection in international dispute resolution?

We have to be very attentive to potential vulnerabilities caused by the use of technology and indeed follow all data protection rules in every context, domestic and crossborder.

What do you see as the next “big thing” in global dispute prevention and resolution?

I think one of the next “big things” is the wider use of mediation.  Citizens, societies, corporations and states developing a real culture of dialogue to prevent conflict when disputes occur.  We should deploy all possible efforts to make that happen.  Thinking about new trends in dispute resolution, ODR deserves a mention.  It is necessary in a global digital world. Today there is an increasing demand for ODR in the court environment.  Hopefully, in time, the private sector in B2B / B2C transactions will understand the benefits of such tools not only in e-commerce and not just in the cross-border context. In recent weeks we’ve already witnessed a growing demand for ODR and mediation using tech platforms. Mediation will be one among other preventive tools in times of crisis for disrupted businesses.

For which types of conflicts would you recommend ADR?

In most cases, ADR and specifically mediation, offers parties more advantages and opportunities to resolve disputes with the best possible outcome because control is in the hands of the parties.  ADR can be used in commercial cases, IP cases, construction/development, insolvency, medical malpractice, personal injury etc.  There are very seldom cases when mediation cannot be used and of course, sometimes, it can be combined with other ADR modes.  For instance, recently there has been growing interest in hybrid procedures such as MED-ARB/ARB-MED.

In your view, what makes CPR unique?

CPR is one of the oldest organizations, established to change the dispute culture and promote ADR in business/economic environments as well as in society as a whole.  CPR is trying to approach and involve all stakeholders even if they have conflict of interests.  The CPR pledge for corporations and law firms was one of the key factors which increased awareness of ADR and spawned a demand for use of ADR.  Last, but not least, CPR has gathered the most experienced ADR professionals/neutrals.

Do you have any concluding remarks you would like to share?

The contemporary world needs dialogue and inclusion at all levels of society now more than ever in human history. In times of crisis and total threat to fundamental human rights, interference with private life, radical shifts within social life and familiar modes of communication, mediation can empower individuals, make their voices heard in a constructive way by others, especially by decision-makers.

CPR Takes to the Web As ADR Continues in the Face of the Coronavirus Crisis

By Anne Muenchinger, Federica Romanelli & Michael Hotz

CPR on Monday hosted an online event, ADR in the Time of COVID-19: How Neutrals & Advocates Can Use Zoom for Mediations & Arbitrations, a 90-minute training dedicated to helping neutrals and advocates use the Zoom Professional online meeting platform, and how to integrate online tools into alternative dispute resolution practices.

Chicago-based attorney Thomas Valenti, an arbitrator and mediator who heads his own firm, and is a member of CPR’s Panels of Distinguished Neutrals, conducted the session.  Held via the platform he was discussing, Valenti showed more than 200 participants the ins and outs of Zoom Professional and how to adapt it for ADR-centric tools such as preliminary hearings, screening arbitration expert witnesses, and private party-mediator caucuses during interparty negotiations.

Monday’s lunchtime session was a follow-up to a March 17 online CPR Institute Mediation Committee where committee members, including Valenti, compared online platforms and electronic mediation techniques.

Details of both sessions are below, as well as information about an American Bar Association online ADR program held last week.

* * *

At the March 30 program, Valenti led a discussion centered around security issues, a key concern for neutrals in using online tools.  Valenti explained the many Zoom features that control access to information, including “end-to-end encryption” of meetings; identification processes; password protection for meetings; waiting rooms that control meeting attendance; the ability to lock meeting rooms once all parties are present, and auditory signals when someone enters or leaves the room.

Valenti discussed essential resources for guidance in the process of moving to an online forum, including  the ICCA-NYC Bar-CPR Protocol on Cybersecurity in International Arbitration, which provides a framework for information security measures for individual arbitration matters. He also noted Zoom’s own white paper and documents on the subject.

Valenti strongly advised using the Protocol’s Schedule A, which contains a “Baseline Security Measures” checklist and provides neutrals with the right questions about their online practice. The spirit of the Protocol, he said, is to offer a framework within which neutrals can make decisions and best adjust online tools to their individual practices and client needs.

Valenti noted the CPR Institute’s participation in the Protocol’s construction by its Working Group. CPR representatives included Senior Vice President Olivier P. André, along with Hagit Elul of Hughes Hubbard & Reed, and Micaela R.H. McMurrough, Covington & Burling, both New York-based partners at their respective firms.

Several Zoom features were explained and demonstrated, including breakout rooms, which can be used for private meetings and caucuses; screen sharing and white boards, which allow for information display or form filling on the spot, and document annotation by all attendees.

A recording of the session will be available soon on the CPR Institute’s new website Resources coronavirus clearinghouse page, ADR in the Time of COVID-19.

Valenti warned that users must recognize the potential shortcomings of online ADR. The assessment of body language will be limited, and there are no guarantees that there is no one sitting off camera or that the meeting is not being recorded.

Meeting participant Dean Burrell, of Morristown, N.J.’s Burrell Dispute Resolution, suggested a tactic he uses to deal with potential issues: He said he asks the parties to scan the room every so often to confirm no one else is present.

Another concern often raised is whether the session is being recorded; Valenti pointed out, however, that this concern is similar to any other mediation or arbitration with the use of smartphones. Hosts should acknowledge that the process is not perfect, but that risks can be minimized.  He said hosts should ask participants if someone else is in the room and not to record the session.

But beyond the  COVID-19 crisis, online ADR practice provides a useful tool for reducing costs and improving efficiency.

For arbitrators, online tools such as Zoom can help them stand out among tech-averse peers, and market themselves as having the ability to continue to push matters forward.

For mediators, online tools should be an addition to an experienced mediator’s set of skills, and can easily be used to set up documents, type in agendas, and set goals during a session. Hosts can also pass control to another party, and use different colors to identify each participant.

Valenti’s demonstration featured a video with Giuseppe Leone, founder of Virtual Mediation Lab, and showed that online mediation is not a new phenomenon. But the COVID-19 crisis is providing the ADR world with an opportunity to move itself forward with technology—not just as a substitute, but as a way to improve its practices.

Valenti recommended that the session host prepare all necessary documents beforehand and have them available on the host computer before beginning the online session, ready for display and sharing. Additionally, mediators should be more conscious about time when conducting an online, as the experience initially will be different from one in a physical space.

Hosts should also be conscious of the level of skill and familiarity that parties and counsel have with these online tools.

Valenti suggested using the initial pre-hearing conference, as set out under CPR Institute Administered Arbitration Rule 9.3, and in the 2019 CPR Rules for Administered Arbitration of International Disputes as an opportunity to test each participant’s level of comfort.

So an easy way to introduce online tools is to switch from a phone call to a video conference for the initial prehearing.

* * *

The genesis of Monday’s CPR members and neutrals-only Zoom training was CPR’s March 17th Mediation Committee meeting.

The Mediation Committee meeting featured two speakers–Kathleen Scanlon, Chief Circuit Mediator for the Second U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New York, and James South, Managing Director, Senior Consultant and Mediator for the Center for Effective Dispute Resolution (CEDR) in London—who presented their perspectives on a variety of mediation issues, including a comparative look at mediation practices on either side of the Atlantic, before focusing on mediating during the coronavirus pandemic.

The Committee then heard how CAMP (the Second Circuit’s mediation and settlement program), CEDR, CPR and the New York District office of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are dealing with mediations through the COVID-19 pandemic.

Kathleen Scanlon began by discussing the benefits of Sonexis (see sonexis.com) as a conferencing system.  She explained that it delegates pin numbers to each participant and allows the mediator to create private rooms for each party and join them as needed. Parties can then notify the mediator when they want to talk with the mediator.

She said there hasn’t been too much difference, anecdotally, between the success rates of mediating in person and with teleconference. Still, the video/audio approach leads to more accidental interruptions. It also decreases the ability to read body language, which can affect trust. The teleconference process also can be more tiring for the mediator to manage.

CEDR’s James South then stated that he uses Zoom.  Meeting participant Thomas Valenti agreed, also recommending the business version of Zoom to conduct more complicated mediations—which prompted the Monday, March 30 session he led, discussed above.

The Mediation Committee meeting participants, who like the March 30 session also participated by Zoom, agreed that it is critical that the conferencing technology used complies with privacy and confidentiality rules like Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (best known as the GDPR). It also was recommended that the parties should consult the ICCA-NYC Bar-CPR Cybersecurity protocol.

James South noted that many mediations had been going on normally during the early stages of the coronavirus pandemic, but that he expected that to change over time. He said he has found that parties have been flexible, and been willing to move to video conferencing. He noted that he is unsure if this will survive the crisis, or is only due to the current state of affairs.

South, however, was confident that any reduction in mediation will return to normal levels.

* * *

Committee members then had a lengthy discussion of the issues surrounding the health crisis.  CPR Institute Senior Vice President Helena Tavares Erickson commented that she had provided to members of CPR’s Panels of Distinguished Neutrals a list of services that they could use to mediate effectively during the crisis.

Erickson noted that CPR Dispute Resolution Services offers its neutrals the option of using a secure document exchange, which allows for online text chat in different chat rooms. (For CPR Institute Dispute Resolution filing details, see www.cpradr.org/dispute-resolution-services/file-a-case.)

Meeting participant David Reinman, who is supervisory ADR coordinator of the New York District’s U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission office, reported that his unit has a program that is currently handling all mediation by video or phone. The EEOC also is allowing parties to reschedule if they insist on in-person mediation. Parties who need translators or other special accommodations may invoke applicable proceedings, too.

Tom Valenti asked about screening procedures when conducting in-person mediations. It was noted that many law firms are forcing people to sign waivers stating that they hadn’t been in at-risk places. Given current advisories and shutdowns, however, it’s unclear that such waivers are effective. If parties want to continue doing face-to-face mediation—which has ceased entirely in many shutdown locations for the duration of the emergency–best practice would be to state that they haven’t been in contact with anyone who is infected.

Meeting participants noted, however, such mandatory declarations on disclosing other parties’ infection status could potentially violate HIPAA rules.

Various other online platforms and training options were compared among the participants near the meeting’s conclusion.

* * *

Beyond CPR’s online training event and meeting, and the resources noted, including the new CPR Institute website Resources clearinghouse page, ADR in the Time of COVID-19, others in the legal world and the dispute resolution community have tackled the move online.

For example, the American Bar Association webcasted a panel of experts on continuing with mediations, arbitrations and similar ADR commitments while coping with coronavirus.

The 90-minute March 20 web panel, “ODR in the ERA of COVID-19: Experts Answer Your Questions,” featured panelists including Hamline-Mitchell School of Law Prof. David Larson; online dispute resolution pioneer Colin Rule, who is a Stanford Law School lecturer, and University of Missouri School of Law Prof. Amy Schmitz. It also was hosted on Zoom.

The panelists shared a presentation while providing useful links on a side chat and taking Q&A from the attendees on another window—an electronic version of social distancing that has been repeated, and is rapidly become an ADR standard operating procedure.

The panel provided a list of advice for neutrals wanting to add tech tools to their toolbox.  It focused on accessibility; preparing lists; ensuring a competent approach; accessing live assistance as needed; analyzing online providers (see, e.g., http://odr.info/provider-list/); taking stock of the role for non-verbal communication; assessing whether the disputants will communicate synchronously; confidentiality; considerations for designing an ODR system; ensuring fairness; and ethical considerations.

The ABA panel concluded on ODR resources, providing the following links:

  • Cyberweek 2019; the NCTDR hosts Cyberweek annually at its website.
  • com, a collaborative resource guide.
  • Amy J. Schmitz and Colin Rule, The New Handshake: Where We Are Now (June 27, 2017). International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution 2016 (3) 2; University of Missouri School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-18. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2991821

* * *

Muenchinger is a CPR Institute Spring 2020 intern, and an LLM student at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University in New York City, focused on the March 30 session discussed in this article.  The section on the CPR Mediation Committee meeting was prepared by CPR Institute Spring 2020 intern Michael Hotz. The section on the ABA seminar was prepared by CPR Institute Spring 2020 intern Federica Romanelli. Alternatives’ editor Russ Bleemer assisted with the research and writing.

 

 

Update Regarding COVID-19 & CPR Mediation Services

The COVID-19 health crisis is causing unprecedented disruptions and damages to the World’s economy and business relationships. A great variety of commercial disputes are surfacing as parties find it impracticable or impossible to perform their contractual obligations. In all likelihood, this crisis will result in a surge of litigation and will also considerably slow down the resolution of pending court cases. In fact, many courts around the world have stopped holding jury trials which will create a considerable backlog for many pending cases. These unprecedented delays should encourage parties to consider alternative dispute resolution.

Last week, we shared with you the launch of a new Dispute Prevention panel, comprised of neutrals who have the experience to facilitate the resolution of a dispute before it becomes a legal conflict. At the same time, we also want to remind you that CPR Dispute Resolution and its Mediation Services are also available to assist businesses in these difficult times. As you know, mediation is a flexible, nonbinding dispute resolution process that uses a neutral third party- the mediator – to facilitate negotiation between the parties and help them find a mutually satisfactory solution to the dispute. The mediator has no authority to impose an outcome on the parties and controls only the process of the mediation itself, not its result. The process is typically faster and more cost-effective than binding dispute resolution processes, such as litigation or arbitration.

CPR’s Mediation Procedures have been drafted by dispute resolution experts and have been used to resolve hundreds of cases over the past three decades. They offer flexibility while providing ground rules for the conduct of the mediation. For example, they provide rules to select the mediator, exchange information between the parties or to preserve confidentiality. All our mediation procedures are available here.

CPR’s Panel of Distinguished Neutrals comprises those among the most respected and elite mediators in the US and around the world. It includes prominent attorneys, retired state and federal judges, academics, as well as highly-skilled business executives, legal experts and dispute resolution professionals who are particularly qualified to resolve all business disputes including those involving multi-national corporations or issues of public sensitivity. Focusing in more than 30 practice areas, CPR’s esteemed mediators have provided resolutions in thousands of cases, with billions of dollars at issue worldwide. Click here for more information about CPR’s Panel of Distinguished Neutrals.

FAQs

How do I commence a mediation with a counterparty with which I have a dispute?  You will need to execute the following mediation agreement with your counterparty:

“We hereby agree to submit to confidential mediation under the CPR Mediation Procedure the following controversy: [Describe briefly]”

What if it is an international dispute? You will need to execute the following mediation agreement with your counterparty:

“The parties hereby agree to submit to mediation under the CPR International Mediation Procedure the following controversy: [Describe briefly]”

What if it is an employment dispute? You will need to execute the model submission agreement in Appendix 1 of CPR Employment Mediation Procedure

What is the cost? 

  • You do not need to pay any filing or administrative fees to use CPR Mediation Procedures. However, if the parties cannot agree on a mediator – or if they would like to benefit from CPR’s expertise in identifying a qualified mediator for the dispute – you will need to pay US$ 1,500 fee (the fee is split among the parties). Click here for more information on how CPR’s experienced case management team assist the parties in selecting their mediator.
  • In addition, you will need to pay the mediator.  Most mediators charge an hourly rate.

What if my dispute is below US$ 500,000?  You may consider using CPR’s flat fee mediation program.  Under the program, the dispute will be mediated for a flat fee of $3,500, to be split among the parties ($2,500 when a CPR member is involved in the dispute).  This amount will entitle the parties to one day of mediation (up to 10 hours, including preparation). Thereafter, an hourly rate of $350 will apply.  Mediators are directly appointed by CPR, after the parties have agreed upon a date and venue.

How do I request CPR’s assistance for the selection of the mediator? To obtain the appointment of a mediator, send your request via email to CPRNeutrals@cpradr.org with the contact information for all parties, including email addresses.  You will also need to pay a $750 non-refundable deposit. Payments can only be accepted via credit cards or wire transfer. Please specify in your cover email how you would like to pay. Click here for more information.

How to I contact the case management team if I have additional questions? Contact Alveen Shirinyans at ashirinyans@cpradr.org or +1.646.753.8230 or Helena Tavares Erickson at herickson@cpradr.org or +1.646.753.8237

NY State Bar Assoc Issues New Ethics Opinion Confirming that Lawyer-Mediator Acting as Third-Party Neutral is Not in Lawyer-Client Relationship or Providing Legal Services

By Mark Kantor

Kantor Photo (8-2012)

The New York State Bar Association Committee on Professional Ethics issued on Friday its Ethics Opinion No. 1178 addressing the ethics obligations of a lawyer acting as a mediator (https://www.nysba.org/CustomTemplates/SecondaryStandard.aspx?id=98793).  According to this new Opinion, a lawyer-mediator acting as a neutral is not acting in a lawyer-client relationship or providing legal services (“In so concluding, we expressly supersede N.Y. State 678 (1996) insofar as that opinion says that the provision of mediation services by lawyers constitutes the practice of law. ****  Only when a lawyer-mediator engages in services beyond providing neutral services, such as filing papers in court, does the lawyer-mediator cross the line into providing legal services.”).  Therefore, much of the New York Rules on Professional Conduct for New York-qualified attorneys are not applicable to mediation services that do not cross that line.

Thus, the N.Y. Rules of Professional Conduct (the “Rules”) that apply when a lawyer represents a client do not necessarily apply in the context of a lawyer providing mediation services, including Rule 1.5 concerning fees, Rule 1.6 concerning confidentiality, and Rule 1.7 concerning conflicts, although lawyer-mediators should be aware that certain rules will continue to apply even in the absence of an attorney-client relationship.  See Rule 5.7, Cmt. [4].

I quote the entirety of the Opinion at the end of this post.

New York State Rule 2.4, which expressly addresses lawyers as third-party neutrals (including as arbitrator and as mediator), remains of course directly applicable.  That Rule requires the lawyer/third-party neutral to inform unrepresented parties that the lawyer serving as the neutral is not representing them and, where appropriate, to explain to the party the difference between a third-party neutral and a lawyer representing a client.  Rule 2.4 provides that:

(a) A lawyer serves as a “third-party neutral” when the lawyer assists two or more persons who are not clients of the lawyer to reach a resolution of a dispute or other matter that has arisen between them.  Service as a third-party neutral may include service as an arbitrator, a mediator or in such other capacity as will enable the lawyer to assist the parties to resolve the matter.

(b) A lawyer serving as a third-party neutral shall inform unrepresented parties that the lawyer is not representing them.  When the lawyer knows or reasonably should know that a party does not understand the lawyer’s role in the matter, the lawyer shall explain the difference between the lawyer’s role as a third party neutral and a lawyer’s role as one who represents a client.

Newly issued Opinion 1178 also offers advice on issues commonly faced by lawyer-mediators navigating the line between legal services and mediation services, including confidentiality, meeting with parties separately, entering into an alternative fee arrangement, and memorializing an agreement reached in the mediation.

  1. In addition, even though the confidentiality provisions of Rule 1.6 would not apply, a lawyer-mediator may be governed by other confidentiality obligations found in substantive laws (such as statutes or court rules) or private sources (such as ethics codes promulgated by mediation groups).  See Rule 2.4, Cmt. [2] (“the lawyer may be subject to court rules or other law that applies either to third-party neutrals generally or to lawyers serving as third-party neutrals.  Lawyer-neutrals may also be subject to various codes of ethics”); Rule 1.12, Cmt. [3] (lawyers who serve as third-party neutrals “typically owe the parties an obligation of confidentiality under law or codes of ethics governing third-party neutrals”); N.Y. State 1026 ¶ 7 (2014).
  2.  Accordingly, as long as the lawyer-mediator follows Rule 2.4 (and any other applicable rules or laws), the lawyer-mediator would be free to conduct the mediation in the way the lawyer-mediator thinks best, including meeting with the parties separately, and contracting for and structuring her fee however the lawyer-mediator would like.
  3.  We also note that the lawyer-mediator may assist the parties with memorializing in writing the terms to which they agree during the mediation.  Such an aide memoire or Memorandum of Understanding is a common product of the mediation process.

The context of Ethics Opinion 1178 is a lawyer who wishes to act as a mediator in divorce disputes.  However, the scope of the Opinion itself arguably extends to third-party neutral services more generally, and certainly to mediation outside the divorce context.  Since the description in Rule 2.4 of third-party neutrals expressly encompasses arbitrators as well as mediators and the rationale for Opinion 1178 includes the adoption of that Rule to distinguish third-party neutral services from the delivery of legal services, one may easily construe Opinion 1178 to apply to a lawyer’s service as a neutral arbitrator as well.  However, the direct conclusions of the Opinion speak only to mediation services.  I invite comments and corrections in that regard from others who may know more on this subject.

Hat tip to Jill Gross at that wonderful blog Indisputably for bringing this development to the attention of the ADR community yesterday (http://indisputably.org/2019/12/new-nys-ethics-opinion-lawyer-as-third-party-neutral/).

###

Ethics Opinion 1178

New York State Bar Association
Committee on Professional Ethics

Opinion 1178 (12/13/2019)
Modifies NY State 678 (1996)

Topic:  Lawyer as third-party neutral

Digest:  A lawyer-mediator engaged in providing third-party neutral services is subject to Rule 2.4 but not the Rules that govern the representation of clients.  As such, the lawyer-mediator is generally free to conduct the mediation in the way the lawyer thinks best, and to charge whatever fee may be appropriate, provided always that the lawyer fully discloses to the parties that the lawyer is acting as a disinterested mediator and not as counsel to any party, including the consequences of that difference.  In the event of an agreement, the lawyer-mediator may memorialize the parties’ understanding in a document and may appear as counsel for one party (but not both) in filing a divorce action if the other party gives informed consent confirmed in writing.

Rules:  1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.12, 2.4, 5.7

FACTS

1. The inquiring lawyer intends to become a mediator and plans to focus on mediating cases involving parties who would otherwise seek a contested divorce.  The lawyer-mediator anticipates that the parties may find that meeting individually to discuss the issues that need to be resolved in order to submit their agreement to the court would be beneficial given the antagonistic position between them.

2. The lawyer-mediator intends to charge an upfront, flat rate for the mediation services. The goal of those services is for the parties to resolve all of the issues necessary for the parties to be in a position to submit an uncontested divorce package.  In the event that the parties discontinue using the lawyer as a mediator before all of the issues are resolved, the contract will provide that the parties will pay the lawyer-mediator an hourly rate for the services performed, charged against the upfront payment with any unused amount returned to the parties.

QUESTIONS

3. In connection with setting up a mediation practice, the inquiring lawyer poses several questions:

(a) May the lawyer-mediator meet with the parties individually to inform them of the various issues that need to be resolved in order to have a divorce granted in New York?
(b) May the lawyer-mediator enter into a contract with the parties to provide mediation services?  If so, may the contract provide for the payment of a flat rate by the parties in the event resolution is reached that results in an uncontested divorce packet but otherwise provides for the payment by the parties on an hourly basis if the parties discontinue the lawyer-mediator’s services before all issues can be resolved?
(c) What disclosures does the lawyer-mediator have to provide to parties to the mediation concerning her role as mediator?
(d) May the lawyer-mediator prepare documents, including a divorce action representing the parties, if the parties reach agreement?

OPINION

4. Generally, lawyer-mediators are not engaged in the representation of a client and are not providing legal services to the parties to the mediation.  See N.Y. State 999 ¶ 2 (2014); N.Y. State 1026 ¶ 6 (2014).  Thus, the N.Y. Rules of Professional Conduct (the “Rules”) that apply when a lawyer represents a client do not necessarily apply in the context of a lawyer providing mediation services, including Rule 1.5 concerning fees, Rule 1.6 concerning confidentiality, and Rule 1.7 concerning conflicts, although lawyer-mediators should be aware that certain rules will continue to apply even in the absence of an attorney-client relationship.  See Rule 5.7, Cmt. [4].

5. Instead, Rule 2.4 is directed to lawyers acting as third-party neutrals and provides:
(a) A lawyer serves as a “third-party neutral” when the lawyer assists two or more persons who are not clients of the lawyer to reach a resolution of a dispute or other matter that has arisen between them.  Service as a third-party neutral may include service as an arbitrator, a mediator or in such other capacity as will enable the lawyer to assist the parties to resolve the matter.

(b) A lawyer serving as a third-party neutral shall inform unrepresented parties that the lawyer is not representing them.  When the lawyer knows or reasonably should know that a party does not understand the lawyer’s role in the matter, the lawyer shall explain the difference between the lawyer’s role as a third party neutral and a lawyer’s role as one who represents a client.

6. In terms of the required disclosure under Rule 2.4(b) stated above, we have noted that “[t]he precise content of the required conversation, and the exact information the lawyer-mediator will have to disclose to a party about the lawyer’s role, may vary from one mediation to another.”  See N.Y. State 878 (2011).  Comment [3] to Rule 2.4 provides some guidance:

Unlike nonlawyers who serve as third-party neutrals, lawyers serving in this role may experience unique problems as a result of differences between the role of a third-party neutral and a lawyer’s service as a client representative.  The potential for confusion is significant when the parties are unrepresented in the process.  Thus, paragraph (b) requires a lawyer-neutral to inform the unrepresented parties that the lawyer is not representing them.  For some parties, particularly parties who frequently use dispute-resolution processes, this information will be sufficient.  For others, particularly those who are using the process for the first time, more information will be required.  Where appropriate, the lawyer should inform unrepresented parties of the important differences between the lawyer’s role as a third-party neutral and as a client representative, including the in-applicability of the attorney-client evidentiary privilege.  The extent of the disclosure required under this paragraph will depend on the particular parties involved and the subject matter of the proceeding, as well as the particular features of the dispute resolution process selected.

7. “Thus, unless all mediating parties are represented by counsel in the mediated matter, a lawyer-mediator must explain whatever needs to be explained to assure there is no confusion about the lawyer-mediator’s role and the difference between a lawyer’s role on behalf of a client and a mediator’s role as a neutral.”  See N.Y. State 878 (2011).

8. There may also be times when it is not possible for the lawyer-mediator to provide an effective explanation regarding the difference between the role as a lawyer-mediator compared to a lawyer’s role when representing a client.  As we noted in N.Y. State 736 (2001), matrimonial mediation may be undertaken in many circumstances, but sometimes “the complex and conflicting interests involved in a particular matrimonial dispute, the difficult legal issues involved, the subtle legal ramifications of particular resolutions, and the inequality in bargaining power resulting from differences in personalities or sophistication of the parties make it virtually impossible to achieve a result free from later recriminations or bias or malpractice, unless both parties are represented by separate counsel.  In the latter circumstances, informing the parties that the lawyer ‘represents’ neither and obtaining their consent, even after a full explanation of the risks, may not be meaningful; the distinction between representing both parties and not representing either, in such circumstances, may be illusory.”

9. In addition, even though the confidentiality provisions of Rule 1.6 would not apply, a lawyer-mediator may be governed by other confidentiality obligations found in substantive laws (such as statutes or court rules) or private sources (such as ethics codes promulgated by mediation groups).  See Rule 2.4, Cmt. [2] (“the lawyer may be subject to court rules or other law that applies either to third-party neutrals generally or to lawyers serving as third-party neutrals.  Lawyer-neutrals may also be subject to various codes of ethics”); Rule 1.12, Cmt. [3] (lawyers who serve as third-party neutrals “typically owe the parties an obligation of confidentiality under law or codes of ethics governing third-party neutrals”); N.Y. State 1026 ¶ 7 (2014).

10. Accordingly, as long as the lawyer-mediator follows Rule 2.4 (and any other applicable rules or laws), the lawyer-mediator would be free to conduct the mediation in the way the lawyer-mediator thinks best, including meeting with the parties separately, and contracting for and structuring her fee however the lawyer-mediator would like.

11. We also note that the lawyer-mediator may assist the parties with memorializing in writing the terms to which they agree during the mediation.  Such an aide memoire or Memorandum of Understanding is a common product of the mediation process.

12. Beyond this, however, that lawyer-mediator may not cross the line between acting as a neutral arbiter and acting as counsel to the parties.  N.Y. State 1026 ¶ 10 (the lawyer performs legal services when the lawyer drafts and files divorce papers in court on behalf of the parties).  In that event, all of the mediation services would then be covered by the Rules as the non-legal mediation services would not be distinct from the legal services.  See Rule 5.7.  Nevertheless, Rule 1.12(b) expressly permits the lawyer-mediator, at the conclusion of the mediation, in the event of an agreement between the parties, to represent one of the parties in filing a divorce action in court, provided the other party gives informed consent, confirmed in writing.  At that point, the erstwhile mediator owes all the duties accompanying the attorney-client relationship under the Rules to the represented party.  Rule 1.7(b)(3) forbids a lawyer from representing adverse parties in a proceeding, even with informed consent, and so the lawyer-mediator may not represent both parties in the filing of a divorce action.

13. In so concluding, we expressly supersede N.Y. State 678 (1996) insofar as that opinion says that the provision of mediation services by lawyers constitutes the practice of law.  That opinion was issued before adoption of Rule 2.4, which specifically governs a lawyer’s provision of neutral services and which had no equivalent in the predecessor N.Y. Code of Professional Responsibility.  We have earlier so hinted:  Following adoption of the Rules, we noted the possibility that our conclusion under the Rules might change on this issue. In N.Y. State 979 (2013), we said that there were conflicting opinions concerning whether the provision of mediation services was the practice of law and that “[t]he case that such services are not the practice of law was arguably bolstered by New York’s adoption of the Rule specifically governing a lawyer’s service as a mediator.”  We now make explicit that Rule 2.4 ousts our conclusion in N.Y. State 678 that the provision of mediation services invariably constitutes the practice of law.  Only when a lawyer-mediator engages in services beyond providing neutral services, such as filing papers in court, does the lawyer-mediator cross the line into providing legal services.

CONCLUSION

14. A lawyer-mediator engaged in providing third-party neutral services is subject to Rule 2.4 but not the Rules that govern the representation of clients.  As such, the lawyer-mediator is generally free to conduct the mediation in the way the lawyer-mediator thinks best and to charge whatever fee the lawyer-mediator thinks appropriate and must provide disclosure to the parties concerning the lawyer-mediator’s role as a mediator compared to that of a lawyer representing a client.  If, however, the lawyer-mediator engages in an activity that constitutes a legal service, that legal service would not be distinct from the non-legal mediation services and the Rules would then apply to both the legal and non-legal services provided by the lawyer-mediator.  At the conclusion of the mediation, the lawyer may represent one (but not both) of the parties in filing a divorce action, provided the other party gives informed consent, confirmed in writing.

(08-19)

You May Be Interested In…

New York State Bar Association Committee on Professional Ethics Opinion 1178 (12/13/2019) Modifies NY State 678 (1996) Topic: Lawyer as third-party neutral Digest: A lawyer-mediator engaged in providing third-party neutral services is subject to Rule 2.4 but not the Rules that govern the representation of clients. As s

Lawyer?mediator may not draft and file separation agreement and divorce papers on behalf of spouses as joint clients unless the lawyer can satisfy the “disinterested lawyer” test of DR5?105(C)

New York State Bar Association Committee on Professional Ethics   Opinion 999 (3 28 14)   Topic    Marital Mediation and referrals.

Lawyer may not ethically enter into arrangement with a non-lawyer to accept referrals for a fixed monthly fee for each case referred where case has been obtained by telephonic solicitation.

A lawyer may not participate in a divorce mediation referral service that is not operated, sponsored or approved by a bar association

_______________________________________________

Mark Kantor is a CPR Distinguished Neutral. Until he retired from Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, Mark was a partner in the Corporate and Project Finance Groups of the Firm. He currently serves as an arbitrator and mediator. He teaches as an Adjunct Professor at the Georgetown University Law Center (Recipient, Fahy Award for Outstanding Adjunct Professor). Additionally, Mr. Kantor is Editor-in-Chief of the online journal Transnational Dispute Management.

This material was first published on OGEMID, the Oil Gas Energy Mining Infrastructure and Investment Disputes discussion group sponsored by the on-line journal Transnational Dispute Management (TDM, at https://www.transnational-dispute-management.com/), and is republished with consent.

Understanding the Mediation Process to Assist Mediators, Self-Represented Litigants and Attorneys

steven_125

 

 

By:  Judge Steven I. Platt (Ret.)

The following guest post is a transcript of a speech that the author presented to the meeting of The Legal Research Institute of the Law Library Association of Maryland (LLAM), on October 11, 2019 at the University of Maryland School of Law. It is reprinted here with permission.

INTRODUCTION:

Good afternoon.

I appreciate this opportunity to discuss the role of the legal researcher in the 21st Century profession of dispute resolution from the perspective of what I now call myself, “a Recovering Judge.” I spent a total of 29 years from 1978 to 2007 on three different Trial Courts. I was also assigned to Maryland’s intermediate appellate court on multiple occasions. For the last 17 years, I have engaged in the world of private dispute resolution as an arbitrator, mediator, neutral case evaluator, Special Magistrate and Consultant on dispute resolution system design and implementation.

What I see is vastly different from what I saw from the Bench in the last quarter of the 20th Century, 1978-1999 and the first decade of the 21st Century, 2000-2007. Like every other institution of government, The Judiciary, as well as the private dispute resolution sector is rapidly changing. “Evolving” connotes too slow a process to be an accurate description of what is going on. Technology and globalization are rapidly transforming the forums and techniques of dispute resolution and with them the paradigms of the administration of civil justice.

These modifications of existing governmental institutions, corporate organizations as well as new financial products and devices, result from rapid technological development and globalization. These trends will, notwithstanding some of the subliminal messages from our recent elections, not be reversed. So, therefore, the work and role of the legal researcher must necessarily expand and diversify to accommodate these changes and trends.

I recognize, that it is ironic that almost contemporaneous with these changes and my remarks, we just recently witnessed a not-significant portion of the electorate in the country, and if you want to count “Brexit”, indeed the world, revolting at the voting booths against “elites.” Legal researchers are, at times, in the business of identifying and defining what and who are “elite.”

CHANGES IN THE METHODS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION:

Traditionally, our citizens have had their disputes (legal and factual) resolved by a judge or jury in a courtroom. There, the role of the legal researcher has historically focused on assisting the trier of fact, and the arbiter or authority on the law, be it a judge or jury, to locate and understand the evidence and the law which applies to it. Traditionally, those legal researchers except for law clerks, staff attorneys, and law librarians have not worked for the court and are not paid by the court. Rather, they work for and are paid by the parties and/or counsel. Therefore, in many instances, their research and the advocacy based thereon are, at least initially, viewed by both judges and juries as suspect. I am sure that almost everyone in this room has encountered that barrier if not overt cynicism to your research and arguments based thereon being received and found persuasive.

That is changing. For one thing, the appointment by the Court of its own experts and reliance on its own research frankly as a reaction to the diffusion of the “mainstream” media and social media particularly in cases involving valuation issues is on the rise. Most state courts have the authority to do that and more and more are open to exercising it. Judges and Court Administrators who do not always know or understand “who you are, what you do, how you do it.” I encourage you to reintroduce yourselves to judges and court administrators who you may think you need further introduction. In doing so, however, you must educate them. As a caution, do not assume a basic knowledge except among a very few experienced judges of the terminology produced by your research including valuation techniques, particularly of intellectual property, businesses (distressed and other) as well as intangibles and other forensic accounting issues.

Courts are also increasingly relying on their own appointed Financial Forensic Experts as Receivers and Special Magistrates. In doing so, they expect their experts to be able to access complex legal research as well as multi-disciplinary research. Most state courts and all federal courts give their Judges the authority and discretion to appoint whomever they want including non-lawyers. The standard is “abuse of discretion.” Appointing someone with knowledge of the issues and industry before the courts and who can make informed and educated recommendations or even run a company for the Court, having the experience to do so, is clearly not an “abuse of discretion.”  The judges will increasingly depend on you and your research to identify who those individuals are and their methodologies.

Finally, The Courts are increasingly utilizing Special Magistrates and Settlement Administrators a/k/a “Claims Adjudicators” to administer and manage settlements of high stakes, multi-party litigation particularly Class Action cases and Mass Tort cases. Court Appointed Special Magistrates and Settlement Administrators are most of the time authorized by Rule and/or Court Order to employ “such professionals, experts and consultants as they deem necessary” to carry out their court ordered duties, which likely will include recommending the allocation of damages, expert fees, and attorney’s fees to The Court. That is you! Those Settlement Administrators, Special Magistrate, and Receivers are a market which, if currently unexplored, should be on your marketing screen shortly. They need your cutting edge multi-disciplinary research.

The best-known example of this relatively recent phenomenon and “The Man” is of course, Ken Feinberg of 9-11 Fund, BP Gulf Oil Spill, and Virginia Tech fame, to name a few. In each of these cases, and others, the roles of Financial Forensic Experts and the legal and multi-disciplinary researchers they employ, has been to perform among other functions:

  1. Research and Develop formulas and algorithms to determine the allocation of economic damages based on severity indexes established by the terms of the settlement agreement and data collected to support it.
  2. Explain to the Special Magistrate, The Administrator, and/or The Court, those formulas and the allocation of damage awards based thereon.
  3. Explain to the recipients of the different categories and amounts of damage the basis for the differentiations in the size of their distribution or award.
  4. Supervise the transfer and application of data from investigations, interviews and records to the administrators formulating and implementing the settlement.

I, myself, have been involved in this process more than once as a Special Magistrate and Settlement Administrator, and I can tell you that the research needs of these Financial Forensic Experts who are qualified to, and willing to perform these functions are growing, but the number of potential legal researchers who understand those needs, and can meet them and are qualified to do so by education and experience is not large or at least not known.

THE USE OF EXPERTS IN ADR:

Furthermore, the non-traditional use of Experts, particularly Financial Forensic Experts in what is known as Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is growing. As I have said, these new roles derive from the traditional role of assisting a judge or jury but are expanded to include or substitute persuading other players in the dispute. For example, in Mediation, the legal researcher can be most effective by assisting the opposing party, opposing counsel, or even the opposing expert in understanding the issues from the opposing parties’ perspective or how a court would understand it. There’s an old saying in the litigation world – “Don’t play in the other guys analytical ballpark.” However, in a Mediation, you DO play in the other guy’s analytical ballpark. That’s how you persuade him/her. If successful, it is likely that your research will result in the desired resolution of the dispute.

In an Arbitration, explaining to a single arbitrator or a three-arbitrator panel the methodology which is appropriate to value market share in order to determine as in asbestos cases the percent of allocation of damages, between defendants or in the newly emerging cannabis industry, with which I am familiar, the percentage of revenue or profits to which a consultant is entitled are examples. Here the success of the expert’s client will very much depend on the legal researcher’s ability to persuade the Arbitrator that the methodology utilized is appropriate and individualized to the valuation of the real, personal, or even intellectual property at issue in the case and not just a one size fits all over formula developed by the industry particularly the insurance industry.

Finally, it is useful to understand that in the new “Administration of Justice” paradigm, the data, opinions and related experience and information that will be sought from you will, to a certain extent, depend on the dispute resolution forum and technique being utilized by the parties and Counsel. In litigation and arbitration, your opinion as to how to determine the specific quantification of damages will be sought utilizing the theory of the case, and the valuation theory selected by the hiring authority. In a Mediation or Neutral Case Evaluation, your opinion is most likely to be sought to aid in a risk analysis designed to leverage the possible settlement of the case.

I hope I have been helpful and have adequately described the comparatively new world that you, as legal researchers have been or will shortly be operating in. As we look to the future of the field of dispute resolution and the administration of justice and specifically to your role as experts in that system, perhaps the best guidance that I can provide in conclusion is the advice of Abraham Lincoln which we would all do well to heed today, “The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate for the stormy present and future. As our circumstances are new, we must think anew and get anew.”

 ~

Judge Steven I. Platt (Ret.) is the Founder and Managing Member of The Platt Group, Inc., a professional Alternative Dispute Resolution Firm. He is also a member of The Maryland Board of Directors of The National Academy of Distinguished Neutrals (NADN), which, after a thorough peer review by the Board of Directors of that “invitation only” organization, selects only the top 10% of Neutrals in the country. He is also on the Judicial, Commercial, Employment, Large Complex Case, and Construction Panels of the American Arbitration Association (AAA), the International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution (CPR), The International Mediation Institute (IMI). The Association for resolving business disputes to judges and lawyers both in Maryland and nationally through both The Judicial Education Program of the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies (served on Judicial Advisory Board), and through The American College of Business Court Judges (Past President).

Judge Platt may be reached at info@theplattgroup.com or at 410-280-0908.

His writings and other background information can be found on his website, www.theplattgroup.com and his Blog at  www.apursuitofjustice.com.

Any opinions expressed in this post are solely those of the author and do not necessarily constitute the opinions of The CPR Institute.

 

 

Committee Q&A: A Conversation with Mediation Committee Co-Chair, Marjorie Berman 

marjorieberman

As part of our continuing “Committee Q&A” series, we sat down recently with Mediation Committee Co-Chair, Marjorie Berman of Krantz & Berman (pictured), to learn more about what this committee has been up to and has planned for the future.

~ ~ ~

The Mediation Committee consists of CPR members throughout the world and aims to enhance the quality and effectiveness of corporate mediation practice, both domestically and internationally.  The Mediation Committee recently released Mediation Best Practices Guide for In-House Counsel: Make Mediation Work for You, a CPR members-only guide with insider tips from in-house counsel on how to navigate every step of the mediation process (digital copies available to CPR members at no cost).  The Mediation Committee meets quarterly to collaborate and share best practices and put on programs of interest.   In addition, the Committee works to identify qualified neutrals to serve on CPR’s Panels of Distinguished Neutrals. You may find online, CPR’s Mediation ProcedureFast Track Rules for Mediation, and International Mediation Procedure (2017), as well as other industry-specific protocols.

Q. What are some of the specific issues that the Mediation Committee has focused on recently, and how?

A. I am a relatively new add to the committee but, looking back at just the past two meetings we’ve held, the first was on the Singapore Convention. We worked to fashion a program that would be meaningful – and useful – to people at all levels, including some who may not be as familiar with international law.  And at our most recent meeting, we focused on the very timely topic of confidentiality in mediation.

There has been a recent vintage of challenges to the confidentiality of mediation in the courts. Eugene Farber and Professor Nancy Rogers of the Ohio State University Moritz College of Law spoke, and the meeting was super lively and chock full of information. The event also inspired a very strong dialogue among the participants with respect to both knowledge and practice tips on anticipating that such issues could arise.

Q. Can you give us a preview of some of the important issues the Mediation Committee will be focusing on in the coming year?  

A. One long-term focus of the committee is an even closer look at this issue of confidentiality in mediation. Because candor between a mediator and parties is essential, mediation depends upon the privileges and confidentiality that protect those communications. The law protecting mediation communications is a patchwork of federal and individual case statutes, case law and rules of conduct that vary across jurisdictions.

This project will inform practitioners of the law and rules governing mediation confidentiality by jurisdiction so they can prepare themselves in the event they need to mediate in an unfamiliar locale. In fact, as people are reading this, and they have personal experiences with challenges to confidentiality and being put in the spotlight in a litigation – not where mediators wish to be! – I encourage them to share those stories with the committee.  

Q. What have you personally gotten out of participating in CPR’s committee structure, and what would you say to busy CPR members about why they should become more involved?

A. Even in the short term in which I’ve been intensely involved, participation in the committee has given me exposure to a wide variety of mediators working in many different contexts, and to a breadth of mediation practices. We can all so easily develop a narrow focus in our work, so it is especially valuable to get perspective from all angles – including from inside and outside litigators using mediation, mediators doing mediation, mediators working both in the US and around the world and academics studying mediation.

Q. Why would you encourage people to join CPR’s Mediation Committee in particular?

A. To some degree mediators tend to be in a bit of a closed world. They mediate cases and its often just them, in a room as a mediator. Being a part of such a dynamic and interactive group expands your view and allows you to process and grow both your perspective and your practice. This is valuable whether you’re a mediator trying to develop your own practice, or a litigator from a corporation or a law firm who is involved as a participant, trying to get a perspective of where mediators are coming from – because you can’t have that kind of conversation with your own mediator.

Committee participation also provides the broader opportunity to act as a thought leader, helping to improve the effectiveness of mediation and to shape best practices. Mediation is a very dynamic area where small changes can produce big results in terms of outcomes, and this committee offers an opportunity to become a meaningful part of that.

Marjorie Berman of Krantz & Berman LLP represents civil litigants in business disputes, employers and employees in employment conflicts, and individuals in white-collar criminal matters.

~ ~ ~

CPR committees are always looking to increase membership and participation, and there are no extra fees or costs associated with joining. Learn more about CPR’s other industry and subject matter committees here. To become a committee member, log in and join the committee(s) of your choice or email a note of interest to Richard Murphy at rmurphy@cpradr.org.

Take your seat at the table, along with
other thought leaders in your industry.

JOIN A CPR COMMITTEE TODAY

 

 

A Report on the 2019 CPR European Congress on Business Dispute Management (Part II)

EU flagBy Vanessa Alarcón Duvanel and Kathleen Fadden

On 15 May 2019, CPR held its third annual European Congress on Business Dispute Management, in London. Organized by CPR’s European Advisory Board (the “EAB”) and kindly hosted once more by SwissRe in the magnificent Gherkin building, the Congress inspired thought provoking considerations on topics of dispute prevention and resolution. As with last year’s summary, we have split this reporting in two parts; Part I sharing the morning panel sessions can be found HERE

The afternoon’s session began with a keynote address by Teresa Giovannini of LALIVE in Geneva, Switzerland.  Teresa Giovannini has a wealth of experience in international arbitration having served as an arbitrator in over 200 arbitrations and held leadership positions in various institutions.  In a captivating speech entitled “what happens behind the curtains”, she gave the audience a glimpse of how arbitral tribunals operate.  The integrity of the arbitral process has often been criticized and bias, in particular, be it unconscious or conscious, can impact throughout the process.  Complete elimination of bias may be difficult and Teresa Giovannini outlined some simple steps that can minimize bias: adopting the screen selection process in the CPR Rules whereby the arbitrators do not know which party has appointed them; ensuring that the issues to be determined are identified at the outset of the proceeding and put to the parties; and strictly adhering to the principle that a case must be put aside if a party does not adduce sufficient evidence to support its case.

*********

“Master Mediators Answer the Most Intriguing Mediation Questions”

The first panel of the afternoon proved to be a lively discussion about mediation challenges.  The panel was moderated by Isabelle Robinet-Muguet (Orange) and Alexander Oddy (Herbert Smith Freehills).  The panelists were: Eileen Carroll (Mediator and CPR Neutral), Renate Dendorfer-Ditges (Ditges and CPR Neutral), Diego Faleck (Mediator and CPR Neutral) and Birgit Sambeth Glasner (Altenburger and CPR Neutral)

The panel addressed three intriguing mediation questions:

What are the challenges when dealing with cross border mediation and what advice would you offer?

Obviously good preparation is table stakes.  It is essential to take time to talk to the clients in order to understand what might be driving the dynamics, including whether the parties are being guided by lawyers and – in either joint or evaluative sessions – what the expectations are including how active they expect the mediator to be.  The mediator must establish the process and set a substantive agenda for the clients.  In this respect, another challenge that often arises in cross border mediations is that cross border frequently means cross-cultural.  Mediators must therefore be sensitive to, and familiar with, cultural differences as such awareness can guide the mediator in selecting negotiation strategies/tactics that are more likely to be successful.

A second challenge is one of timing of the mediation hearing.  Increasingly, mediations are being forced into short time frames, typically a day and no more.  Master mediators however criticized the efficiency of this template – check the box – practice.  It has proven helpful to require the parties to resume the following day because the interim night often provides valuable time for reflection.  Where does this 24-hour model come from?  The audience contributed suggestions pointing the finger to mediators who in most cases are lawyers and have other cases to attend to or at the insurers who tend to drive the 24-hour template.

Is the concept of a mediated settlement changing?

The concept itself may not have changed but its implementation suffers difficulties.  In line with its remarks to the first question, the panel noted that the purpose of mediation is unfortunately too often gravitating towards setting the stage for arbitration rather than settling the dispute.  It may be a function of the compressed time frames in which mediations increasingly take place (see above).

How do you deal with a conflict within a conflict?

There was no question that conflicts within conflicts impact the mediation process and therefore it is critical they be addressed effectively.  It is not an easy situation to navigate.  Good mediation process management and managing expectations are key as each case is different.  Master mediators on the panel shared illustrative examples of what can generate a conflict within a dispute such as the imbalance in the parties’ levels of sophistication and/or resourcing.  One often finds the weaker party being aggressive and/or irrational.  From a process perspective, a mediator should be equipped to handle such situation proactively by taking the time to understand the concerns (the party may be missing information or believing that its interests are unmet) and by warning the stronger side to be patient.

Mediation is an art – it requires skills, training and practice!

“The Resolution of Complex, Multi-Stakeholder, Multi-Jurisdictional Disputes”

The final panel of the day examining the use of ADR tools in large complex disputes was moderated by Cliff Hendel (Hendel IDR) and the panelists were: Gavin Chesney (Debevoise & Plimpton), James Cowan (Shell International), Ania Farren (Vannin Capital), Albert Hilber (Swiss Reinsurance) and Richard Little (Eversheds Sutherland).

Setting the stage for the discussion, Cliff Hendel offered a couple of interesting preliminary remarks.   Firstly, he reminded everyone that in large and complex disputes culture eats process for breakfast.  In other words, culture counts!  Failures often stem from the inability to understand one another.  Engaging in active listening is therefore key.  Secondly, there are of course trade-offs inherent to the co-existence of different legal systems.  Notwithstanding some European laws in the ADR field, national laws are not particularly harmonized, leading to the risk of forum shopping (among others).

This panel addressed two main issues:

What are your views on the use of co-mediation in complex disputes?

The overall view was that generally mediation, per se, remains difficult in many jurisdictions and that is for cultural reasons. For many Europeans resorting to non-binding ADR is still perceived as a sign of weakness and many parties adopt a mindset whereby if they are to spend money on a dispute resolution process, they want a binding result.  It is important to work to help parties overcome this hurdle.  There is really no substitute for having all the parties in one room and giving all stakeholders visibility as to the whole picture.  In the panel’s experience, this tends to produce more creative solutions.  On co-mediation specifically, experience shows that it works well when all involved mediators are well prepared and even better if they have worked together in the past.

Does litigation/arbitration funding have an impact on mediation?

There is an often referred to “traditional” view that third party funder involvement will make settlement less likely.  The panel did not entirely agree with that.  Ania Farren, offering a funder’s perspective, explained that having a funder on board signaled a strong case.  Funders typically do not influence the dispute resolution process and do not normally attend settlement discussions.  Funders in fact do favor early settlement often preferring less money early than more money later. That said, and unsurprisingly, different third-party funders have different risk appetites. This diversity while beneficial to parties seeking funding for their case brings uncertainty and raises concerns as to the funders’ impact on the parties’ ability to settle or mediate the dispute.  In international arbitration there is no formal regulation of the use of third-party funding and the panel agreed on the need for more transparency concerning funder involvement particularly given the potential for conflicts of interest.

*********

The Conference concluded with closing remarks from Noah Hanft, CPR’s outgoing President and CEO and James South, Managing Director of CEDR.  This was an opportunity to outline the fruitful collaboration between CEDR and CPR.

Noah was thanked profusely for his phenomenal contribution to CPR.

 

 

Vanessa Alarcon Duvanel is an attorney admitted to practice in New York and Switzerland and specializing in international arbitration. She is based in Geneva and serves as the Secretary to the European Advisory Board.

Kathleen Fadden is a legal consultant and member of the CPR’s European Advisory Board.

 

A Report on the 2019 CPR European Congress on Business Dispute Management (Part I)

EU flagBy Vanessa Alarcón Duvanel and Kathleen Fadden

On 15 May 2019, CPR held its third annual European Congress on Business Dispute Management, in London. Organized by CPR’s European Advisory Board (the “EAB”) and kindly hosted once more by SwissRe in the magnificent Gherkin building, the Congress inspired thought provoking considerations on topics of dispute prevention and resolution. As with last year’s summary, we have split this reporting in two parts: a Part I sharing the morning panel sessions, and a Part II covering the afternoon panels.

“The Future of ADR”

The first panel examined how the ADR community was responding to recent attacks on traditional arbitration and mediation and how ADR can remain relevant.  It was moderated by Mark McNeill (EAB member, Quinn Emmanuel Urquhart & Sullivan (then Sherman & Sterling).  The panelists sharing their perspectives were: Stefano Catelani (DuPont), Ferdinando Emanuele (Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton), Jennifer Glasser (White & Case) and Noah Hanft (CPR).

Considering the recent developments in dispute resolution, the panel’s remit was to consider whether ADR was approaching crisis point or, whether in fact, there were new opportunities to be seized.  The panel tackled a variety of topics:

Driving mediation into the arbitration process and whether arbitrators should encourage mediation.

Some jurisdictions still have limited acceptance of mediation for multifarious reasons: it can be difficult to find qualified mediators, arbitrators are reluctant to promote mediation and model escalation clauses often force a “check the box” type approach where mediation is not given adequate consideration and viewed solely as a mandatory step.  CPR has been actively encouraging mediation over the world and made a particular push in Brazil.  It has been considering a more flexible model escalation clause that whilst mandating mediation, is not prescriptive about when it shall occur – provided it is before the case is heard.  The use of mediation is referenced in the new 2019 CPR Rules for Administered Arbitration of International Disputes and mediation is now a topic for discussion within the preliminary conference (Rule 9.3e).

How will this change the ADR landscape in the coming years?

Noah Hanft offered his perspective on the evolution of ADR: In his view there is no dispute that mediation is effective so it really is in companies’ interests to adopt mediation.  He anticipates a growth in mediation even though he noted that user complaints have succeeded in driving down the average time it takes to conclude an arbitration.  But there will also be more use of hybrid approaches and the desire for efficiency and cost containment will drive innovation in the area.  These thoughtful comments led the panel to add that mediation was in fact being used nowadays in various stages of a commercial relationship.  For example, mediation is resorted to in transactions to facilitate deals and in the joint venture space consideration was being given to the early identification of those issues that may lead to a dispute with the engagement of a standing neutral and/or the introduction of turnkey provisions requiring stakeholders to focus on the health of the joint venture.

Is ADR at all relevant in investor state disputes?

When it comes to mediation or settlement negotiation, it is often politically very difficult for states to settle disputes with investors.  Andy Rogers of CEDR reported on an interesting development whereby CEDR, in collaboration with other organisations, is currently organizing training for mediators, ISDS practitioners and government officials to equip them with the knowledge and skills necessary to mediate investment disputes.

Will Brexit change the ADR landscape?

Since the Congress was hosted in the United Kingdom (UK) it would have been remiss not to consider the impact of Brexit on ADR!  English governing law and jurisdiction clauses have historically been popular choices for commercial parties and panelists were asked for their views on whether businesses should rethink this choice in light of Brexit.  The overall reaction was that there is no clear answer to the question and the area of greatest uncertainty likely concerns the enforcement of judgments.  Currently, under the Recast Brussels Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2012 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (recast) also known as the “Brussels regime”), a judgment rendered in an EU member state and enforceable in that member state is enforceable in all other member states.  If the UK exits the EU without an agreement on the continued operation of the Brussels regime, the latter will cease to apply and the reciprocity will be lost.  This could be remedied – to some extent – as the UK is seeking to become a member, in its own right, of the Hague Choice of Court Convention. As the panel noted, if the UK accedes to this international instrument, then as contracting state its courts must give effect to exclusive jurisdiction clauses and enforce any judgments resulting from such clauses. This blog cautions that the Hague Convention is narrower in scope than the Recast Brussels Regulation and questions still remain about the application of the Convention in circumstances where an exclusive jurisdiction clause has been entered into prior to the U.K.’s exit from the EU.   Post Congress, a new “Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters” was adopted on 2 July 2019.  The UK adherence to this new treaty would resolve many of the enforcement issues triggered by Brexit.  Although the 2018 Queen Mary & White & Case International Arbitration Survey reported that London remained the most preferred seat of arbitration and over half of the respondents thought that Brexit will have no impact on the use of London as a seat, it is clear, Brexit has created doubts and given rise to many questions that only time will answer.

This led panelists to move naturally to another new development in ADR, namely the introduction in various jurisdictions of “international” courts.  The Netherlands, Germany and Singapore to name just a few have created or contemplated the opportunity of creating “international” commercial courts.  Typically, these courts – which are established under national law rather than by international treaty – operate in English and adopt arbitration type rules.  Do these represent a threat or a challenge to arbitration?  In general, the panel did not see a significant threat.  There are, of course, pros and cons with national courts and arbitration tribunals.  A key benefit of arbitral proceedings is confidentiality, which is not necessarily guaranteed in court proceedings.  With respect to enforcement, currently, there is no global convention for the enforcement of court judgments in the same way that the New York Convention facilitates enforcement of arbitral awards.  On the other hand, summary disposition of issues is available in some court systems but historically arbitrators have been cautious about their use – even though recent revisions to most leading arbitral rules (including the CPR Rules) permit such procedures.  In summary, there is space for both fora and the panel noted that certainly from a user perspective, competition and choice could only be positive.

The last aspect concerning the future of ADR which the panel considered was: the Prague Rules and whether they will lead to increased efficiencies in arbitration.

The Rules are intended to be an alternative to the well-known IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration (IBA Rules) and to bridge the gap between common and civil law approaches.  The panel’s position was not too optimistic.  Neither document production nor the taking of witness evidence are likely to be more efficient under the Prague Rules and the costs of arbitration proceedings are unlikely to reduce.  This is so because the Prague Rules provide a framework and do not exist in a vacuum; in many respects the level of efficiency and the nature of document production is driven more by the arbitrator.  In the panel’s view, rather than a new set of rules, it would be more useful to increase the pool of arbitrators  and even better, arbitrators that are more active!  The panel shared four examples as to why in its view the Prague Rules would not deliver efficiencies.  I) there is a conflict between article 2.1 which requires that the arbitral tribunal “shall” convene a case management conference “without any unjustified delay,” and the requirement in article 2.2 that the arbitral tribunal “shall” clarify at that same case management conference, undisputed / disputed facts and the legal grounds of the parties’ respective cases (among others). Indeed, experience shows that it would be inefficient (perhaps impossible) to clarify disputed and undisputed facts or legal positions on the basis of a Request for Arbitration and Answer to the Request since these typically do not contain sufficient detail.  II) article 4.2 on documentary evidence discourages document production but the rest of the provisions in the same section retreat from this position.  III) with respect to fact witnesses, articles 5.2 and 5.3 empower arbitrators to make determinations about calling witnesses but article 5.7 then rather diminishes that power by providing that if a party insists on calling a witness whose statement has been submitted by the other party, the arbitral tribunal should call the witness to testify at the hearing.  Finally, iv) in respect of experts, article 6.1 appears to make tribunal-appointed experts the default rule.  However article 6.5 states that a party may nonetheless submit a report from an expert appointed by that party.  Given that in practice many tribunals hear only party-appointed experts, the Prague Rules’ regime is likely to lead to arbitrations with both tribunal-appointed and party-appointed experts which will increase the volume of the parties’ submission, hearing time, and inevitably costs.

The future of ADR is in some respects uncertain (Brexit being an example) but at the same time full of interesting challenges and novelties.

“Preparing for the Robo-Revolution”

The second panel of the morning was similarly looking to the future but this time with a legal-tech focus.  The panel was moderated by Javier Fernández-Samaniego (Samaniego Law) and the panelists were: Ulyana Bardyn (Dentons US LLP), Diana Bowman (VINCI Energies), Sarah Ellington (DLA Piper) and Ralph Lindbäck (Wärtsila Corporation).

Should ADR practitioners be concerned about robots? Or do we consider that robots and computer arbitrators are still in the realm of science fiction?

To answer this question, the panel started by looking at the state and use of legal-tech today.  Certain types of dispute and several aspects of dispute management can be automated and in fact there are already automated tools deployed to handle routine and administrative tasks.  EBay was cited as an example, as it uses algorithms to generate decisions in e-commerce disputes.  Currently, automation is however mostly applied in low value disputes rather than complex cases. Whilst appropriate deployment of automated tools can bring benefits in terms of speed and accuracy, the panel noted that it also carries disadvantages and has its limitations.  For instance, it is not necessarily clear how due process will be respected if a computer arbitrator presides in an arbitration, or how algorithms could be created and comply with the confidentiality of arbitral proceedings, or how the parties would know how to pick the right algorithms for their dispute.  One significant limitation highlighted by the panel was the inescapable fact that disputes involve human beings and one cannot automate the relationship management aspect of dispute resolution!  Even if artificial intelligence were able to accurately predict the verdict in a dispute, some litigants simply want their day in court or their day in arbitration, an experience that no robot can satisfy.

Notwithstanding the challenges, law firms are preparing for the robot revolution and some have already achieved significant milestones in this respect. Law firm practitioners on the panel provided real insights into the approaches taken by their respective organizations.  Ulyana Bardyn shared with the audience some of Dentons’ leading efforts in this space including its collaborative innovation platform “Nextlaw Labs”; various programmes focused on case management enabling clients to see spending in real time, or assisting clients with finding the best pro bono help available; and the “Libryo platform” which aims to simplify legal complexity by providing a curated collection of all laws relevant to specific business sectors enabling lawyers to understand their organisation’s legal obligations in any given situation.

Sarah Ellington reported on DLA Piper’s own investments in technology and elaborated on three of the DLA tools, all of which are aimed at dispute avoidance.  A first tool is a guided pathway app geared to IT outsourcing projects and intended for commercial managers, it contains questions about project progress and status and produces a report with red flags if problems are detected.  The second is a virtual secondment tool which enables businesses to submit questions and have a response within 24 hours.  Finally, the firm has an immersive business simulation, essentially a training tool, geared toward infrastructure projects where users can engage in a facilitated session where they take on a particular role within a simulated project.

These tools are impressive from the lawyers’ perspective.  How is the business community reacting to this technology assisting their counsel?  Corporate counsels on the panel all agreed that dispute resolution should be looked upon as a value stream with a significant focus on dispute avoidance.  To reach this goal and develop successful tools, collaboration between law firms and their clients is key.  That is all the more relevant as the business community is making its own progresses in the digital arena.  Many businesses are entering into collaborations, partnerships and campus initiatives – e.g., sandbox environments where universities, startups and investors can come together to innovate– are growing.  Dispute resolution though is not always part of the picture. Would it ever be possible to predict that a dispute was coming?  In certain sectors, that Holy Grail may not be too far off.  As Diana Bowman described, VINCI Energies already attempts to obtain information about events that occur on site and shares it with the back office in real time.  With good record keeping and quality information there may be opportunities to both predict and resolve issues early before a dispute escalates.

Shifting gears slightly, the panel touched on another technology hot topic: cyber security. Cyber attacks are a significant and rapidly evolving peril for today’s businesses but the levels of security deployed, particularly in the arbitration field, varies significantly between, for example, sole practitioners and top tier international law firms.  Regardless of size, all can fall victim to an attack.  Speaking from experience, Sarah Ellington shared some of the lessons learned after DLA Piper suffered from the NotPetya malware attack in June 2017 resulting in all the firm’s IT systems globally being taken offline. The risks are real and the consequences of an attack can be devastating.  To cope with a potential problem, it is fundamental to have: an up-to-date business continuity plan including practical solutions for work continuation, a clear communication protocol, emergency contact groups, back up email, calendar and document management systems.

The digital revolution has arrived although not necessarily in all legal departments! In some of the most sophisticated companies the legal department does not even have a suite of templates.  Readers of this blog, as the audience at the Congress, are encouraged to think about the digital revolution as a wave: do you want to be bowled over by it or do you choose to ride it on a surf board?

Stay tuned for part II…

 

Vanessa Alarcon Duvanel is an attorney admitted to practice in New York and Switzerland and specializing in international arbitration. She is based in Geneva and serves as the Secretary to the European Advisory Board.

Kathleen Fadden is a legal consultant and member of the CPR’s European Advisory Board.

 

Ready to Sign: The Singapore Convention, An International Mediation Treaty, Opens for Ratification

By Hew Zhan Tze

After years of negotiations, the Singapore Convention on Mediation last week reached the signature phase.

That means that countries around the globe can sign on, and ratify, a treaty designed to boost the use and support for mediation in cross-border transactions.

The convention is officially known as the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation, and is available at https://bit.ly/2YWbHKN.

On Aug. 7, more than 1,500 international delegates from 70 countries attended a Singapore signing ceremony.

A total of 46 countries–including the United States and China–signed the convention on the first day. (The full list is available from the United Nations at http://bit.ly/2ZPFGFl.)

The convention is a product of the efforts of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Working Group II to alleviate the difficulties of enforcing a cross-border settlement agreement reached from mediation. It can only come into effect after six months, and after three signatory countries ratify the treaty. See Article 14(1) of the Singapore Convention at the first link above.

Ratification is a signatory country’s domestic procedure where treaty approval is sought, and necessary legislation is enacted to give effect to the convention.

Generally, in the United States, a treaty can only be ratified by the president after receiving the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. The Senate must pass a ratification resolution, requiring a two-thirds approval.  See U. S. Const. Art. II, § 2 (available at https://bit.ly/2zBgoge).

The Singapore Convention’s goals have been likened to a mediation version of the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, best known as the New York Convention. (Available at http://bit.ly/2KHaa5W.)

The large number of initial signatories to the Singapore Convention appears to show a positive reception toward easing enforcement of a settlement agreement obtained from other similarly bound jurisdictions. This is in comparison to the 10 signatures received at the launch of the New York Convention six decades ago. The increase in numbers likely reflects an increased recognition of the effectiveness of ADR methods.

* * *

More analysis on the Singapore Convention on Mediation will appear in the September Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation, available soon at altnewsletter.com.

The author was a CPR Institute Summer 2019 intern.

 

Update: ADR Breakfast on New York State’s Presumptive Mediation Implementation

By Savannah Billingham-Hemminger

An official of the New York state court system introduced new efforts on boosting the use of alternative dispute resolution, and especially mediation, at a regular gathering of practitioners last week.

Lisa Denig, Special Counsel for ADR Initiatives for the NY State Office of Court Administration, spoke about the moves, characterized by what the state is calling “presumptive ADR,” at the monthly New York City John Jay College of Criminal Justice ADR Breakfast on July 11.

In attendance were attorneys, neutrals, and representatives of organizations who are interested in how the ADR steps, part of New York State Chief Judge Janet DiFiore’s Excellence Initiative, would affect their practices. The effort will push litigants to using ADR in an effort to expedite and improve the quality of outcomes in the state court system.

Full details on the presumptive ADR and mediation efforts are in the new issue of Alternatives to the High Cost of Litigation, at “‘Presumptive Mediation’: New York Moves to Improve Its Court ADR Game,” 37 Alternatives 107 (available at http://bit.ly/2GbCWdK).

Denig opened the briefing with background on the effort. Earlier this year, Chief Judge DiFiore introduced the idea as a way to reduce court backlogs. While many pilot programs had already been conducted, the move is designed to ensure full participation and cement ADR as an option—as well as a focus—in all state courts.

While many perceive the efforts as a mediation-based program, it is officially termed “Presumptive ADR” because not every court will focus on mediation. Courts in the state’s 13 judicial districts are being given freedom to adopt programs in accordance with local demand. The districts are making ADR plans based upon their typical cases, and matching that with the ADR methods that work best for these cases.

The plans, which are being drafted by the administrative judge of each judicial district, are due to be submitted by Sept. 1. Denig said that the hope is that implementation will roll out by the end of the year. There are certain types of civil cases that are not conducive to ADR methods, but she assured the audience that presumptions will not change, but rather, the ADR approach will be adjusted.

The culture shift in New York state courts’ approach to cases has already brought up some challenges. Denig noted the biggest issues to be addressed included language diversity of neutrals; power imbalances in mediation; opt-out provisions for certain cases, and neutrals’ compensation.

She stated that these challenges are being worked out this summer. The administrative judges are looking at other states as models in addressing these issues, formulating their plans and developing their local rules. There will be statewide and local rules for the initiative, and they are being developed on parallel tracks.

The breakfast audience brought up many scenarios that members currently face in their ADR practices. The biggest concern—not surprising in a gathering that is often heavily attended by neutrals–is the state’s hiring process, requirements, and neutral compensation.

The answer to the questions was: Stay tuned.  Lisa Denig listened to the concerns, and assured the group that once the plans roll out in September, the presumptive ADR path will be much clearer.

The New York state court system’s May 14 announcement on the presumptive ADR moves is available at http://bit.ly/32lhjkq.

 

The author, a Summer 2019 CPR Intern, is a law student at Pepperdine University School of Law in Malibu, Calif.